Open Access in JAH
Validation of the Kriol and Belizean English Adaptation of the Revised Children's Anxiety and Depression Scale for Use With Adolescents in BelizeTo validate a culturally-adapted Kriol and Belizean English version of the Revised Children's Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS) through comparison with clinical diagnoses made using the Kiddie Schedule of Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia.
Validation of the English and Swahili Adaptation of the Patient Health Questionnaire–9 for Use Among Adolescents in KenyaOur study aimed to validate culturally adapted English and Swahili versions of the Patient Health Questionnaire–9 (PHQ-9) for use with adolescents in Kenya. Criterion validity was determined with clinician-administered diagnostic interviews using the Kiddie Schedule of Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia.
Strengthening the Measurement of Adolescents' Mental Health at the Population LevelWe have a notion that adolescence is a healthy time of life. Many parents wonder what is so stressful for young people who do not have the kinds of financial burdens and family worries that adults experience. Consequently, it is not uncommon for adults to dismiss the emotional concerns of their adolescent children. However, adolescence is a time of exceptionally rapid change both physically and neurodevelopmentally. As a time of numerous first experiences and exposures, the world around the adolescents changes in ways that they never experienced in childhood.
Detecting Depression and Anxiety Among Adolescents in South Africa: Validity of the isiXhosa Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7Screening tools such as the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) could potentially be used in resource-limited settings to identify adolescents who need mental health support. We examined the criterion validity of the isiXhosa versions of the PHQ-9 and GAD-7 in detecting depression and anxiety among adolescents (10–19 years) in South Africa.
Effects of a Patient-Centered Intervention to Reduce Alcohol Use Among Youth With Chronic Medical ConditionsAlcohol poses unique risks for youth with chronic medical conditions (YCMC) yet many drink. Preventive interventions targeting YCMC are scarce.
Utilizing SBIRT as a Framework for Transforming How We Think About Prevention and Early Intervention for Youth and Young AdultsIn 2013, the Conrad N. Hilton Foundation launched a national strategic initiative to transform how substance use by young people is identified and addressed. Historically, youth substance use has been viewed through the lens of either preventing initiation or providing specialty substance use treatment when problems had become severe. At that point, little work had been done to develop approaches to identify and engage youth who use alcohol or other drugs but who do not yet meet criteria for needing intensive services.
Adolescent Screening, Brief Intervention, Referral to Treatment: Defining a Research AgendaIn 2020, the United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) concluded for the second time in 13 years (or third if you include the alcohol Screening, Brief Intervention, Referral to Treatment [SBIRT] review) that there is insufficient evidence available to assess the effectiveness of SBIRT and more study is needed. This report, which focused on reducing substance use, misses some of SBIRT's potential benefits. For example, screening for substance use may lead to better clinical care, even if it does not reduce use.
Young Adult Substance Use and Healthcare Use Associated With Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment in Pediatric Primary CareScreening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) may impact future comorbidity and healthcare utilization among adolescents screening positive for substance use or mood problems.
Rates, Patterns, and Predictors of Follow-up Care for Adolescents at Risk for Substance Use Disorder in a School-Based Health Center SBIRT ProgramTo examine rates, patterns, and predictors of follow-up care for adolescents screened as being at risk for substance use disorder (SUD) in a school-based health center (SBHC) Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) program.
Pediatric Subspecialist Alcohol Screening Rates and Concerns About Alcohol and Cannabis Use Among Their Adolescent PatientsPediatric specialty care provides an opportunity to screen for and address patient substance use; however, little is known about providers’ screening rates, their opinions regarding substance use harms, or the potential marijuana to be used as a medication.
Substance Use Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment in Multiple Settings: Evaluation of a National InitiativeThis study evaluated the implementation and outcomes of a multisite initiative to identify and intervene in adolescent substance use across the many settings where youth interact. This paper focuses on the implementation and intermediate outcomes of the initiative, while others in the supplement address impact and ultimate outcomes.
Examining the Effectiveness of the FaCES Adolescent SBIRT InterventionThe Facilitating Change for Excellence in SBIRT (FaCES) is a service package for adolescent primary care that was developed based on best practices and evidence, but was empirically untested. The aim of this study is to compare the FaCES intervention to treatment as usual (TAU) for rural adolescent primary care patients.
Youth-Reported School Connection and Experiences of a Middle School–Based Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment Initiative: Preliminary Results From a Program EvaluationThis study aimed (1) to evaluate the feasibility of a school-based Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) program that expands on traditional SBIRT to support the mental health and well-being of middle school students and (2) to assess its effects on students’ connection with adults at school.
Screening and Brief Intervention With Low-Income Youth in Community-Based SettingsWe described screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) results and assessed whether SBIRT is associated with positive changes in substance use, risky use, and educational/employment outcomes for youth in community-based settings that are not healthcare focused.
Translation and Adaptation of the Revised Children's Anxiety and Depression Scale: A Qualitative Study in BelizeAdapting data collection instruments using transcultural translation and adaptation processes is essential to ensure that respondents comprehend the items and the original meaning is retained across languages and contexts. This approach is central to UNICEF’s efforts to expand the use of standard data collection tools across settings and close the global data gap on adolescent mental health.
Toward a Demand-Driven, Collaborative Data Agenda for Adolescent Mental HealthExisting datasets and research in the field of adolescent mental health do not always meet the needs of practitioners, policymakers, and program implementers, particularly in the context of vulnerable populations. Here, we introduce a collaborative, demand-driven methodology for the development of a strategic adolescent mental health research agenda. Ultimately, this agenda aims to guide future data sharing and collection efforts that meet the most pressing data needs of key stakeholders.
Implications for Mental Health Promotion and Prevention Interventions: Findings From Adolescent Focus Group Discussions in Belize, Kazakhstan, and South AfricaThis study aimed to understand 10- to 19-year-old adolescents' conceptions of mental health and well-being, and suggestions for appropriate interventions, in three low- and middle-income countries to inform the design of adolescent-responsive preventive and promotive mental health programming.
Measurement of Mental Health Among Adolescents at the Population Level: A Multicountry Protocol for Adaptation and Validation of Mental Health MeasuresMental disorders are among the leading causes of disability among adolescents aged 10-19 years. However, data on prevalence of mental health conditions are extremely sparse across low- and middle-income countries, even though most adolescents live in these settings. This data gap is further exacerbated because few brief instruments for adolescent mental health are validated in these settings, making population-level measurement of adolescent mental health especially cumbersome to carry out. In response, the UNICEF has undertaken the Measurement of Mental Health Among Adolescents at the Population Level (MMAP) initiative, validating open-access brief measures and encouraging data collection in this area.
Agents of Change for Mental Health: A Survey of Young People’s Aspirations for Participation Across Five Low- and Middle-Income CountriesEffective intervention, policy, and research in mental health and well-being (MHWB) require young people to be understood not only as beneficiaries, but also as active agents in codesigning and implementing initiatives. To identify pathways for young people’s participation in promoting MHWB in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), this study surveyed young people’s aspirations for engagement, their spheres of influence, capacity building needs, and key barriers to participation.
Core Principles of International Research: Lessons From the National Adolescent Mental Health SurveysThe majority of mental disorders have their first onset during adolescence  and are among the leading causes of disability in this age group . However, there are limited commensurate prevalence data . In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) in particular, prevalence data remain severely limited despite these countries having higher proportions of adolescents in their populations [3,4]. Prevalence data are required for generating accurate epidemiological and burden estimates, while also informing service planning and efficient resource allocation.
Increasing Data and Understanding of Adolescent Mental Health Worldwide: UNICEF’s Measurement of Mental Health Among Adolescents at the Population Level InitiativeThe 2030 Sustainable Development agenda, officially adopted by 193 countries in 2015, is the first global monitoring framework that features mental health, an area critical to development that has previously been neglected and not attracted much-needed investment. Target 3.4 aims at reducing by 2030 premature mortality from noncommunicable diseases by one third, through prevention, treatment, and promotion of mental health and well-being. A specific related indicator is the suicide mortality rate.
COVID-19, Mental Health, and Young People’s EngagementThe COVID-19 pandemic has had a profound impact on the mental health of young people around the world, who are living through an unprecedented global public health crisis. Prolonged school closures and mandated social distancing requirements have impacted the well-being of young people across multiple dimensions. This has heightened fear, isolation, helplessness, sadness, worry, disappointment, and anger as well as other psychological distress among adolescents [1–4] [polls: [5,6]].
Bringing a Wider Lens to Adolescent Mental Health: Aligning Measurement Frameworks With Multisectoral ActionsThe majority of mental health problems commonly emerge in adolescence, coinciding with a pivotal point in individual development that lays the foundations for future and intergenerational health . As a result, poor mental health in adolescence can impact on educational attainment, social relationships, societal productivity, and quality of life in the short and long term, and potentially across generations [2,3]. Yet, policy and practice responses to address poor adolescent mental health have been inadequate almost everywhere.
The Importance of Mental Health Measurement to Improve Global Adolescent HealthMental health has long been recognized as fundamental to well-being, reflected in the 1946 constitution of the World Health Organization (WHO) where health is defined as “a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being” . As such, it is important to address mental health across the life course, but of particular importance during adolescence (10–19 years), a unique and formative period for social and emotional development which lays the foundation for long-term and intergenerational health and well-being .
You Can’t Manage What You Do Not Measure - Why Adolescent Mental Health Monitoring MattersDespite growing awareness of mental health conditions in recent years, funding for mental health science has not increased. The 2020 International Alliance of Mental Health Research Funders report “The Inequities of Mental Health Research Funding”  reveals some stark inequalities and highlights issues with resource allocation. Although the global cost of mental health conditions is projected to exceed $6 trillion by 2030 , global investments in mental health research have remained approximately $3.7 billion per year in real terms between 2015 and 2019, equating to roughly 50 cents per person per year.