Cardiovascular Health of Youth During Gender-Affirming Testosterone Treatment: A ReviewMany birth-assigned female/transgender male and nonbinary people (identified as masculine spectrum here) begin gender-affirming testosterone therapy by the age of 24 years. Few data inform assessment of cardiovascular health of masculine spectrum youth as a specific subgroup of the 1.5 million transgender people in the United States. The purpose of this review is to help youth-serving practitioners consider, understand, and evaluate cardiovascular health in adolescent and young adult masculine spectrum patients receiving gender-affirming testosterone treatment.
Applying Behavioral Economics to Improve Adolescent and Young Adult Health: A Developmentally-Sensitive ApproachEach day, adolescents and young adults (AYAs) choose to engage in behaviors that impact their current and future health. Behavioral economics represents an innovative lens through which to explore decision-making among AYAs. Behavioral economics outlines a diverse set of phenomena that influence decision-making and can be leveraged to develop interventions that may support behavior change. Up to this point, behavioral economic interventions have predominantly been studied in adults. This article provides an integrative review of how behavioral economic phenomena can be leveraged to motivate health-related behavior change among AYAs.
Previsit Multidomain Psychosocial Screening Tools for Adolescents and Young Adults: A Systematic ReviewAdolescence and young adulthood constitute a period when exploratory behaviors can evolve into risky behaviors. Most causes of adolescent ill health are preventable; therefore, it is a priority to detect them early before they turn into health problems. Previsit multidomain psychosocial screening tools are used by professionals to detect and prioritize potentially problematic issues. In conjunction with appropriate clinician training, these tools have improved clinician screening rates in several areas of adolescent health.
Components of Interventions That Improve Transitions to Adult Care for Adolescents With Type 1 DiabetesAdolescents with type 1 diabetes struggle with glycemic control with decline further exacerbated by transfer from pediatric to adult care. The purpose of this systematic review/meta-analysis was to examine which components of transition programs are effective in improving outcomes following transfer. We searched six databases for studies that assessed the efficacy of a transition program on diabetes outcomes. Studies reporting hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) or its change for the intervention versus control group pretransition and posttransition were pooled using a random effects meta-analysis model.
Adolescent and Young Adult Health in the United States in the Past Decade: Little Improvement and Young Adults Remain Worse Off Than AdolescentsAdolescence and young adulthood are unique developmental periods that present opportunities and challenges for improving health. Health at this age can affect health throughout the lifespan. This review has two aims: (1) to examine trends in key indicators in outcomes, behaviors, and health care over the past decade for U.S. adolescents and young adults; and (2) to compare U.S. adolescents and young adults on these indicators. The review also assesses sociodemographic differences in trends and current indicators.
Challenging Recruitment of Youth With Type 2 Diabetes Into Clinical TrialsTo better understand and overcome difficulties with recruitment of adolescents with type 2 diabetes into clinical trials at three United States institutions, we reviewed recruitment and retention strategies in clinical trials of youth with various chronic conditions. We explored whether similar strategies might be applicable to pediatric patients with type 2 diabetes.