A Review of Systematic Reviews Targeting the Prevention and Treatment of Overweight and Obesity in Adolescent PopulationsAdolescent obesity is a powerful predictor of morbidity and mortality, yet amenable to modifiable behaviors. To accurately summarize the effects of behavioral interventions on changes in adolescent body mass index and/or weight status, we assessed existing systematic reviews for reporting transparency and methodological quality.
Marketing Food and Beverages to Youth Through SportsFood and beverage marketing has been identified as a major driver of obesity yet sports sponsorship remains common practice and represents millions of dollars in advertising expenditures. Research shows that food and beverage products associated with sports (e.g., M&M's with National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing logo) generate positive feelings, excitement, and a positive self-image among adults and children. Despite this, self-regulatory pledges made by food companies to limit exposure of unhealthy products to children have not improved the nutritional quality of foods marketed to children.
Impact of Computer-Mediated, Obesity-Related Nutrition Education Interventions for Adolescents: A Systematic ReviewThe purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate recent research regarding the use of computer-based nutrition education interventions targeting adolescent overweight and obesity.
Epigenetics and Early Life Origins of Chronic Noncommunicable DiseasesIn light of the increasing threats of chronic noncommunicable diseases in developing countries, the growing recognition of the early life origins of chronic disease, and innovative breakthroughs in biomedical research and technology, it is imperative that we harness cutting-edge data to improve health promotion and maintenance. It is well recognized that chronic diseases are complex traits affected by a wide range of environmental and genetic factors; however, the role of epigenetic factors, particularly with regard to early life origins, remains largely unexplored.
Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver in Children and Adolescents: An OverviewNonalcoholic fatty liver disease is rapidly becoming one of the most common liver diseases in the pediatric population in industrialized countries because of the growing prevalence of obesity and overweight. For this reason, there is a keen and broad interest among researchers to identify new diagnostic noninvasive tools and novel treatment modalities for this condition. Unfortunately, to date, liver biopsy remains the imperfect gold standard for diagnosis. In addition, available noninvasive markers are not fully satisfactory for the diagnosis of fatty liver.
The Timing of Puberty: Is It Changing? Does It Matter?Whether the secular trend of a decreasing age of puberty has continued over the past 50 years remains controversial. Data that had been classically used to address this issue are reviewed and large epidemiologic studies, which had not previously been included, are now considered to challenge the conclusions of prior debates of this topic. The effect and timing of excessive weight gain are discussed in detail and recent observations about the opposing effects of obesity on the pubertal timing of girls versus boys are considered.
A Meta-Analysis of Obesity Interventions Among U.S. Minority ChildrenTo quantitatively evaluate the efficacy of interventions designed to prevent or treat obesity among U.S. minority children using meta-analytic techniques.
Depression, Cortisol Reactivity, and Obesity in Childhood and AdolescenceDepression in childhood is associated with higher body mass index (BMI), a relative measure of overweight, and overweight is associated with cortisol reactivity, indexed by heightened secretion of cortisol in response to a stressor. The current study uses a mediation model to examine the associations between symptoms of depression, cortisol reactivity and BMI in a cross-sectional study.
The Need for Bold Action to Prevent Adolescent ObesityRecord levels of obesity in children and adolescents are predictable in light of powerful conditions that promote high consumption of calorie-dense, nutrient-poor foods and discourage physical activity. Default conditions for youth are dangerous, and include multiple and relentless forms of marketing, poor foods promoted in schools, and a variety of other conditions that undermine personal resources, individual responsibility, and parental authority. This article discusses how optimal defaults can be created using five issues as examples: framing of the obesity issue, treating versus preventing obesity, nutrition in schools, marketing, and addressing weight bias and discrimination.
Preventing Obesity and Eating Disorders in Adolescents: What Can Health Care Providers Do?This article describes five research-based recommendations for health care providers to help prevent both obesity and eating disorders among adolescents that they see within clinical, school, or other settings. The recommendations are based primarily upon findings from Project EAT, a large, population-based study of eating and weight-related issues in adolescents. Recommendations include the following: 1) discourage unhealthy dieting; instead encourage and support the use of eating and physical activity behaviors that can be maintained on an ongoing basis; 2) promote a positive body image; 3) encourage more frequent, and more enjoyable, family meals; 4) Encourage families to talk less about weight and do more at home to facilitate healthy eating and physical activity; and 5) assume that overweight teens have experienced weight mistreatment and address this issue with teens and their families.