The Impact of Monetary Poverty Alleviation Programs on Children’s and Adolescents’ Mental Health: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Across Low-, Middle-, and High-Income CountriesPoverty alleviation programs, such as cash transfers and monetary grants, may not only lift people out of poverty but, some argue, may improve mental health as well. However, to date, the impact of such programs on children and adolescents’ mental health is unclear. We carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis of poverty alleviation interventions providing monetary support and reporting mental health outcomes in 0–19 year olds in low-, middle-, and high-income countries. We searched 11 databases for research published between January 1, 1990 and June 1, 2020 and included interventions offering unconditional and/or conditional monetary support and reporting mental health outcomes.
Behavioral Health Service Utilization Among Detained Adolescents: A Meta-Analysis of Prevalence and Potential ModeratorsUtilization of behavioral health treatment services among adolescents who have been detained or incarcerated within the juvenile justice system is poorly understood, with estimated utilization rates varying widely across studies. This meta-analysis was conducted to review and synthesize the literature on the prevalence of service utilization among this population.
Adolescent and Young Adult Male Mental Health: Transforming System Failures Into Proactive Models of EngagementAdolescent and young adult men do poorly on indicators of mental health evidenced by elevated rates of suicide, conduct disorder, substance use, and interpersonal violence relative to their female peers. Data on global health burden clearly demonstrate that young men have a markedly distinct health risk profile from young women, underscoring different prevention and intervention needs. Evidence indicates that boys disconnect from health-care services during adolescence, marking the beginning of a progression of health-care disengagement and associated barriers to care, including presenting to services differently, experiencing an inadequate or poorly attuned clinical response, and needing to overcome pervasive societal attitudes and self-stigma to access available services.
A Review of Effective Youth Engagement Strategies for Mental Health and Substance Use InterventionsThe majority of adult mental health and substance use (MH&SU) conditions emerge in adolescence. Prevention, diagnosis, and treatment programs targeting this age group have a unique opportunity to significantly impact the well-being of the future generation of adults. At the same time, youth are reluctant to seek treatment and have high rates of dropout from interventions. An emphasis on youth engagement in prevention and treatment interventions for MH&SU results in better health outcomes for those youth.
The Mental Health of Transgender Youth: Advances in UnderstandingThis review provides an update on the growing body of research related to the mental health of transgender youth that has emerged since the 2011 publication of the Institute of Medicine report on the health of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people. The databases PubMed and Ovid Medline were searched for studies that were published from January 2011 to March 2016 in English. The following search terms were used: transgender, gender nonconforming, gender minority, gender queer, and gender dysphoria.
Arab Adolescents: Health, Gender, and Social ContextThis article reviews the evidence about adolescent health in the Arab world, against the background of social, economic, and political change in the region, and with a particular focus on gender. For the literature review, searches were conducted for relevant articles, and data were drawn from national population- and school-based surveys and from the Global Burden of Disease project. In some parts of the Arab world, adolescents experience a greater burden of ill health due to overweight/obesity, transport injuries, cardiovascular and metabolic conditions, and mental health disorders than those in other regions of the world.
Epigenetics and Early Life Origins of Chronic Noncommunicable DiseasesIn light of the increasing threats of chronic noncommunicable diseases in developing countries, the growing recognition of the early life origins of chronic disease, and innovative breakthroughs in biomedical research and technology, it is imperative that we harness cutting-edge data to improve health promotion and maintenance. It is well recognized that chronic diseases are complex traits affected by a wide range of environmental and genetic factors; however, the role of epigenetic factors, particularly with regard to early life origins, remains largely unexplored.
Mental Health Problems and Help-Seeking Behavior Among College StudentsMental disorders are as prevalent among college students as same-aged non-students, and these disorders appear to be increasing in number and severity. The purpose of this report is to review the research literature on college student mental health, while also drawing comparisons to the parallel literature on the broader adolescent and young adult populations.