Advertisement

Associations of Momentary Mindfulness With Affect and Cannabis Desire in a Trial of Cannabis Use Interventions With and Without Momentary Assessment

  • Lydia A. Shrier
    Correspondence
    Address correspondence to: Lydia A. Shrier, M.D., M.P.H., Division of Adolescent/Young Adult Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115.
    Affiliations
    Division of Adolescent/Young Adult Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts

    Department of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts
    Search for articles by this author
  • Sion Kim Harris
    Affiliations
    Division of Adolescent/Young Adult Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts

    Department of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts
    Search for articles by this author

      Abstract

      Purpose

      Mindfulness, awareness resulting from attending to the present without judgment, has been associated with improved health. When considered as a time-varying momentary state, mindfulness is associated with other momentary states such as affect. We examined whether momentary mindfulness, specifically mindful attention and awareness (MAA), changed after counseling interventions to reduce cannabis use that included ecological momentary assessment (EMA) and explored associations with negative affect, positive affect, and cannabis desire.

      Methods

      Outpatients 15–24 years using cannabis ≥3x/week were randomized to one of the three interventions, each including two motivational enhancement therapy (MET) sessions. For two interventions, MET was followed by 2 weeks of EMA (with/without messaging). Momentary MAA, negative affect, positive affect, and cannabis desire were assessed over 1 week of EMA at baseline and 3-month follow-up (N = 1,971 reports, 68 participants). We examined changes in momentary MAA from baseline to follow-up overall and by group (MET + EMA, MET-only) using generalized linear mixed effects models. We tested associations of momentary MAA with momentary affect and cannabis desire using generalized estimating equations.

      Results

      Momentary MAA increased from baseline to follow-up after MET counseling plus EMA (β = 0.237), but did not change with MET counseling alone. Higher momentary MAA was associated with lower negative affect (β = −0.526) and cannabis desire (β = −0.521), but not with positive affect.

      Discussion

      Among youth using cannabis frequently, momentary MAA was increased 3 months after interventions with EMA after counseling and was inversely associated with momentary negative affect and momentary cannabis desire. Mindfulness may be a useful target for momentary intervention.

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Journal of Adolescent Health
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Ludwig D.S.
        • Kabat-Zinn J.
        Mindfulness in medicine.
        JAMA. 2008; 300: 1350-1352
        • Zhang D.
        • Lee E.K.P.
        • Mak E.C.W.
        • et al.
        Mindfulness-based interventions: An overall review.
        Br Med Bull. 2021; 138: 41-57
        • Lin J.
        • Chadi N.
        • Shrier L.
        Mindfulness-based interventions for adolescent health.
        Curr Opin Pediatr. 2019; 31: 469-475
        • Brown K.W.
        • Ryan R.M.
        The benefits of being present: Mindfulness and its role in psychological well-being.
        J Pers Soc Psychol. 2003; 84: 822-848
        • Moore R.C.
        • Depp C.A.
        • Wetherell J.L.
        • Lenze E.J.
        Ecological momentary assessment versus standard assessment instruments for measuring mindfulness, depressed mood, and anxiety among older adults.
        J Psychiatr Res. 2016; 75: 116-123
        • Rowland Z.
        • Wenzel M.
        • Kubiak T.
        Effects of an ultra-brief computer-based mindfulness training on mindfulness and self-control: A randomised controlled trial using a 40-day ecological momentary assessment.
        Mindfulness. 2019; 10: 2312-2326
        • Cavicchioli M.
        • Movalli M.
        • Maffei C.
        The clinical efficacy of mindfulness-based treatments for alcohol and drugs use disorders: A meta-analytic review of randomized and nonrandomized controlled trials.
        Eur Addict Res. 2018; 24: 137-162
        • Davis J.P.
        • Berry D.
        • Dumas T.M.
        • et al.
        Substance use outcomes for mindfulness based relapse prevention are partially mediated by reductions in stress: Results from a randomized trial.
        J Subst Abuse Treat. 2018; 91: 37-48
        • Fortuna L.R.
        • Porche M.V.
        • Padilla A.
        A treatment development study of a cognitive and mindfulness-based therapy for adolescents with co-occurring post-traumatic stress and substance use disorder.
        Psychol Psychother. 2018; 91: 42-62
        • McLaughlin L.E.
        • Luberto C.M.
        • O'Bryan E.M.
        • et al.
        The indirect effect of positive affect in the relationship between trait mindfulness and emotion dysregulation.
        Pers Individ Dif. 2019; 145: 70-74
        • Roos C.
        • Bowen S.
        • Witkiewitz K.
        Approach coping and substance use outcomes following mindfulness-based relapse prevention among individuals with negative affect symptomatology.
        Mindfulness. 2020; 11: 2397-2410
        • Ramadas E.
        • Lima M.P.
        • Caetano T.
        • et al.
        Effectiveness of mindfulness-based relapse prevention in individuals with substance use disorders: A systematic review.
        Behav Sci (Basel). 2021; 11: 133
        • Shrier L.A.
        • Walls C.E.
        • Kendall A.D.
        • Blood E.A.
        The context of desire to use marijuana: Momentary assessment of young people who frequently use marijuana.
        Psychol Addict Behav. 2012; 26: 821-829
        • Kauer S.D.
        • Reid S.C.
        • Crooke A.H.
        • et al.
        Self-monitoring using mobile phones in the early stages of adolescent depression: Randomized controlled trial.
        J Med Internet Res. 2012; 14: e67
        • Runyan J.D.
        • Steenbergh T.A.
        • Bainbridge C.
        • et al.
        A smartphone ecological momentary assessment/intervention “app” for collecting real-time data and promoting self-awareness.
        PLoS One. 2013; 8e71325
        • Heron K.E.
        • Smyth J.M.
        Ecological momentary interventions: Incorporating mobile technology into psychosocial and health behaviour treatments.
        Br J Health Psychol. 2010; 15: 1-39
        • Shrier L.A.
        • Ross C.S.
        • Blood E.A.
        Momentary positive and negative affect predicting marijuana use events in youth.
        J Stud Alcohol Drugs. 2014; 75: 781-789
        • Shrier L.A.
        • Burke P.J.
        • Kells M.
        • et al.
        Pilot randomized trial of MOMENT, a motivational counseling-plus-ecological momentary intervention to reduce marijuana use in youth.
        Mhealth. 2018; 4: 29
        • Watson D.
        • Clark L.A.
        • Tellegen A.
        Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: The PANAS scales.
        J Pers Soc Psychol. 1988; 54: 1063-1070
        • Blom G.
        Statistical estimates and transformed beta-variables.
        1st ed. Wiley, Hoboken, NJ1958
        • Goldberg S.B.
        • Pace B.
        • Griskaitis M.
        • et al.
        Mindfulness-based interventions for substance use disorders.
        Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2021; 10: CD011723
        • Enkema M.C.
        • Hallgren K.A.
        • Bowen S.
        • et al.
        Craving management: Exploring factors that influence momentary craving-related risk of cannabis use among young adults.
        Addict Behav. 2021; 115106750
        • Lindsay E.K.
        • Chin B.
        • Greco C.M.
        • et al.
        How mindfulness training promotes positive emotions: Dismantling acceptance skills training in two randomized controlled trials.
        J Pers Soc Psychol. 2018; 115: 944-973
        • Garland E.L.
        • Farb N.A.
        • Goldin P.
        • Fredrickson B.L.
        Mindfulness broadens awareness and builds eudaimonic meaning: A process model of mindful positive emotion regulation.
        Psychol Inq. 2015; 26: 293-314
        • Shiffman S.
        Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) in studies of substance use.
        Psychol Assess. 2009; 21: 486-497
        • Meiksin R.
        • Melendez-Torres G.J.
        • Falconer J.
        • et al.
        Theories of change for e-health interventions targeting HIV/STIs and sexual risk, substance use and mental ill health amongst men who have sex with men: Systematic review and synthesis.
        Syst Rev. 2021; 10: 21