Advertisement

Disparities in Adolescent Reported Drowning Prevention Strategies

Published:September 07, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2022.06.026

      Abstract

      Purpose

      Describe use of drowning prevention strategies among diverse adolescents.

      Methods

      We analyzed 47,051 responses to 2012–2018 Washington statewide surveys of 8th–12th grade students, regarding formal swimming lessons, comfort in deep water (a measure of perceived water competency), and life jacket use in small watercraft. Using survey-weighted Poisson regression, we measured these strategies in relation to race/ethnicity, primary language, maternal education, and urbanicity.

      Results

      78.6% of students spoke English at home. Most students reported having had formal swimming lessons (62.2%), being comfortable in deep water (65.8%), and wearing life jackets (58.5%). Students primarily speaking Spanish (11.2%) reported formal swimming lessons (PR: 0.72; 95%CI: 0.67–0.78) and perceived water competency (PR: 0.75; 95%CI: 0.70–0.80) less often than primarily English-speaking. All prevention strategies were associated with higher maternal education.

      Discussion

      Drowning prevention strategies, access to swimming lessons, life jackets, and water competency should be promoted among low-income children and those whose primary language is not English.
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Journal of Adolescent Health
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

      1. United States Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics. Underlying cause of death 1999-2018 on CDC WONDER Online Database.
        (Available at:)
        https://wonder.cdc.gov/ucd-icd10.html
        Date: 2019
        Date accessed: March 1, 2020
        • Gilchrist J.
        • Parker E.M.
        Racial and ethnic disparities in fatal unintentional drowning among persons less than 30years of age — United States, 1999–2010.
        J Saf Res. 2014; 50: 139-142
        • Felton H.
        • Myers J.
        • Liu G.
        • Davis D.W.
        Unintentional, non-fatal drowning of children: US trends and racial/ethnic disparities.
        BMJ Open. 2015; 5e008444
        • Saluja G.
        • Brenner R.A.
        • Trumble A.C.
        • et al.
        Swimming pool drownings among US residents aged 5–24 Years: Understanding racial/ethnic disparities.
        Am J Public Health. 2006; 96: 728-733
        • Wallis B.A.
        • Watt K.
        • Franklin R.C.
        • et al.
        Interventions associated with drowning prevention in children and adolescents: Systematic literature review.
        Inj Prev. 2015; 21: 195-204
        • World Health Organization
        Global report on drowning | preventing a leading killer.
        (Available at:)
        • Ramos W.
        • Beale A.
        • Chambers P.
        • et al.
        Primary and secondary drowning interventions: The American Red Cross Circle of drowning prevention and chain of drowning survival.
        Int J Aquat Res Educ. 2015; 9: 8
        • Koon W.
        • Clemens T.
        • Bierens J.
        • Quan L.
        Studying outcome predictors of drowning at the scene: why do we have so few answers?.
        Am J Emerg Med. 2021; 46: 361-366
        • Quan L.
        • Shephard E.
        • Bennett E.
        Evaluation of a drowning prevention campaign in a Vietnamese American community.
        Int J Aquat Res Educ. 2020; 12: 4
        • Washington State Department of Health
        Healthy youth survey - background.
        (Available at:)
        • Washington State Health Care Authority, Washington State Department of Health, Washington Office of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, Washington State Liquor and Cannabis Board
        Healthy Youth Survey Data Analysis & Technical Assistance Manual.
        (Available at:)
        • Irwin C.C.
        • Irwin R.L.
        • Ryan T.D.
        • Drayer J.
        Urban minority youth swimming (in)ability in the United States and associated demographic characteristics: Toward a drowning prevention plan.
        Inj Prev. 2009; 15: 234-239
        • Mercado M.C.
        • Quan L.
        • Bennett E.
        • et al.
        Can you really swim? Validation of self and parental reports of swim skill with an inwater swim test among children attending community pools in Washington State.
        Inj Prev. 2016; 22: 253-260
        • Langendorfer S.
        • Moran K.
        • Stallman R.
        Guiding principles: applying water competence to drowning prevention.
        Int J Aquat Res Educ. 2018; 11: 22
        • Cunningham R.
        • Hailu A.
        • Halsell C.
        • et al.
        Guidelines for using rural-urban classification Systems for community health assessment.
        (Available at:)
        http://www.doh.wa.gov/Portals/1/Documents/1500/RUCAGuide.pdf
        Date: 2016
        Date accessed: September 15, 2017
        • StataCorp
        Stata Statistical Software: Release 15.
        Washington State Department of Health, Washington2019
        • Willcox-Pidgeon S.M.
        • Franklin R.C.
        • Leggat P.A.
        • Devine S.
        Identifying a gap in drowning prevention: high-risk populations.
        Inj Prev. 2020; 26: 279-288
        • Willcox-Pidgeon S.M.
        • Peden A.E.
        • Scarr J.
        Exploring children’s participation in commercial swimming lessons through the social determinants of health.
        Health Promot J Austr. 2021; 32: 172-181
        • Irwin C.C.
        • Irwin R.L.
        • Ryan T.D.
        • Drayer J.
        The legacy of fear: is fear impacting fatal and non-fatal drowning of African American children?.
        J Black Stud. 2011; 42: 561-576
        • Stallman R.K.
        • Moran K.
        • Quan L.
        • Langendorfer S.
        From swimming skill to water competence: towards a more inclusive drowning prevention future.
        Int J Aquat Res Educ. 2017; 10: 3