Advertisement

Adverse Childhood Experiences and Perceived Unfair Police Treatment: Differences by Race and Ethnicity

      Abstract

      Purpose

      The purpose of the study was to examine racial/ethnic heterogeneity in the relationship between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and perceived unfair police treatment in the United States.

      Methods

      Data are from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (n = 8,876). Logistic regression models were used to assess the relationship between accumulating ACEs and perceived unfair police treatment. Moderation analyses were conducted to assess interactions between ACEs, race, and ethnicity.

      Results

      Those with four or more ACEs were 3.4 times as likely to report perceived unfair police treatment by adulthood, relative to individuals with zero ACEs (odds ratio = 3.411, 95% confidence interval = 2.634, 4.418). Still, Black individuals have the highest probability of experiencing unfair police contact, and this pattern remains relatively stable irrespective of the number of ACEs. The probability of perceived unfair police treatment significantly increases alongside accumulating ACEs for all other racial and ethnic groups.

      Discussion

      Exposure to accumulating ACEs substantially elevates the likelihood of perceived unfair police treatment. However, perceived unfair police treatment is so common in the lives of Black Americans; it occurs at considerably high rates irrespective of ACE exposure.

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Journal of Adolescent Health
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Hughes K.
        • Bellis M.A.
        • Hardcastle K.A.
        • et al.
        The effect of multiple adverse childhood experiences on health: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
        Lancet Pub Health. 2017; 2: e356-e366
        • Anda R.F.
        • Butchart A.
        • Felitti V.J.
        • Brown D.W.
        Building a framework for global surveillance of the public health implications of adverse childhood experiences.
        Am J Prev Med. 2010; 39: 93-98
        • Anda R.F.
        • Felitti V.J.
        • Bremner J.D.
        • et al.
        The enduring effects of abuse and related adverse experiences in childhood.
        Europ Arch Psychiat Clinic Neruosci. 2006; 256: 174-186
        • Testa A.
        • Jackson D.B.
        • Ganson K.T.
        • et al.
        Adverse childhood experiences and maternal disability: Findings from the North Dakota and South Dakota PRAMS, 2019.
        Soc Sci Med. 2022; 292: 114616
        • Felitti VJ, Anda RF,Nordenberg D, et al
        Relationship of childhood abuse and household dysfunction to many of the leading causes of death in adults: The Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study.
        Am J Prev Med. 1998; 14: 245-258
        • Barnes A.J.
        • Anthony B.J.
        • Karatekin C.
        • et al.
        Identifying adverse childhood experiences in pediatrics to prevent chronic health conditions.
        Ped Res. 2020; 87: 362-370
        • Graf G.H.
        • Chihuri S.
        • Blow M.
        • Li G.
        Adverse childhood experiences and justice system contact: A systematic review.
        Pediatrics. 2021; 147 (e2020021030)
        • Craig J.M.
        The potential mediating impact of future orientation on the ACE–crime relationship.
        Youth Viol Juv Just. 2019; 17: 111-128
        • Fagan A.A.
        • Novak A.
        Adverse childhood experiences and adolescent delinquency in a high-risk sample: A comparison of white and black youth.
        Youth Viol Juv Just. 2018; 16: 395-417
        • Giovanelli A.
        • Reynolds A.J.
        • Mondi C.F.
        • Ou S.R.
        Adverse childhood experiences and adult well-being in a low-income, urban cohort.
        Pediatrics. 2016; 137: e20154016
        • Stinson J.D.
        • Quinn M.A.
        • Levenson J.S.
        The impact of trauma on the onset of mental health symptoms, aggression, and criminal behavior in an inpatient psychiatric sample.
        Child Abuse Neglect. 2016; 61: 13-22
        • Fleming C.M.
        • Nurius P.S.
        Incarceration and adversity histories: Modeling life course pathways affecting behavioral health.
        Am J Orthopsychiat. 2020; 90: 312-323
        • Dennison C.R.
        • Finkeldey J.G.
        Self-reported experiences and consequences of unfair treatment by police.
        Criminol. 2021; 59: 254-290
        • Jackson D.B.
        • Fahmy C.
        • Vaughn M.G.
        • Testa A.
        Police stops among at-risk youth: Repercussions for mental health.
        J Adolesc Health. 2019; 65: 627-632
        • Baćak V.
        • Apel R.
        The thin blue line of health: Police contact and wellbeing in Europe.
        Soc Sci Med. 2020; 267: 112404
        • Del Toro J.
        • Lloyd T.
        • Buchanan K.S.
        • et al.
        The criminogenic and psychological effects of police stops on adolescent black and Latino boys.
        Proceed Nat Acad Sci. 2019; 116: 8261-8268
        • Turney K.
        Depressive symptoms among adolescents exposed to personal and Vicarious police contact.
        Soc Mental Health. 2021; 11: 113-133
        • DeVylder J.E.
        • Frey J.J.
        • Cogburn C.D.
        • et al.
        Elevated prevalence of suicide attempts among victims of police violence in the USA.
        J Urban Health. 2017; 94: 629-636
        • Jackson D.B.
        • Testa A.
        • Fix R.L.
        • Mendelson T.
        Adolescent police stops, self-harm, and attempted suicide: Findings from the UK Millennium Cohort Study, 2012-2019.
        Am J Pub Health. 2021; 111: 1885-1893
        • Weitzer R.
        • Tuch S.A.
        Perceptions of racial profiling: Race, class, and personal experience.
        Criminol. 2002; 40: 435-456
        • Merrick M.T.
        • Ford D.C.
        • Ports K.A.
        • Guinn A.S.
        Prevalence of adverse childhood experiences from the 2011-2014 behavioral risk factor surveillance system in 23 states.
        JAMA Peds. 2018; 172: 1038-1044
        • Sacks V.
        • Murphey D.
        The prevalence of adverse childhood experiences, nationally, by state, and by race or ethnicity.
        Child Trends, Bethesda, MD2018
        • Geller A.
        • Fagan J.
        • Tyler T.
        • Link B.G.
        Aggressive policing and the mental health of young urban men.
        Am J Pub Health. 2014; 104: 2321-2327
        • Jackson D.B.
        • Del Toro J.
        • Semenza D.
        • et al.
        Unpacking racial/ethnic disparities in emotional distress during Witnessed police stops.
        J Adolesc Health. 2021; 69: 248-254
        • Turanovic J.J.
        Heterogeneous effects of adolescent violent victimization on problematic outcomes in early adulthood.
        Criminol. 2019; 57: 105-135
        • Harris K.M.
        • Halpern C.T.
        • Whitsel E.A.
        • et al.
        Cohort profile: The national longitudinal study of adolescent to adult health (Add health).
        Int J Epidemiol. 2019; 48 (1415-1415k)
        • Baćak V.
        • Wilson L.
        • Bright K.
        Gendered association between sexual self-identification and police encounters perceived as unfair.
        Ann Epidemiol. 2021; 63: 41-45
        • Testa A.
        • Jackson D.B.
        • Semenza D.
        Unfair police treatment and sleep problems among a national sample of adults.
        J Sleep Res. 2021; 30: e13353
        • Brumley L.D.
        • Jaffee S.R.
        • Brumley B.P.
        Pathways from childhood adversity to problem behaviors in young adulthood: The mediating role of adolescents’ future expectations.
        J Youth Adolesc. 2017; 46: 1-14
        • Testa A.
        • Jackson D.B.
        Adverse childhood experiences and food insecurity in adulthood: Evidence from the national longitudinal study of adolescent to adult health.
        J Adolesc Health. 2020; 67: 218-224
        • Sacks V.
        • Murphey D.
        • Moore K.
        Adverse childhood experiences: National and state-level prevalence. Child Trends, Bethesda, MD2014
        • Hicks M.R.
        • Kernsmith P.
        • Smith-Darden J.
        The effects of adverse childhood experiences on internalizing and externalizing behaviors among black children and youth.
        J Child Adolesc Trauma. 2021; 14: 115-122
        • Liu S.R.
        • Kia-Keating M.
        • Nylund-Gibson K.
        Patterns of adversity and pathways to health among White, Black, and Latinx youth.
        Child Abuse Neglect. 2018; 86: 89-99
        • Brame R.
        • Bushway S.D.
        • Paternoster R.
        • Turner M.G.
        Demographic patterns of cumulative arrest prevalence by ages 18 and 23.
        Crime Delinq. 2014; 60: 471-486
        • Hagan J.
        • Shedd C.
        • Payne M.R.
        Race, ethnicity, and youth perceptions of criminal injustice.
        Am Sociol Rev. 2005; 70: 381-407
        • Alang S.
        • McAlpine D.
        • McCreedy E.
        • Hardeman R.
        Police brutality and black health: Setting the agenda for public health scholars.
        Am J Pub Health. 2017; 107: 662-665
        • Bernard D.L.
        • Calhoun C.D.
        • Banks D.E.
        • et al.
        Making the “c-ACE” for a culturally-informed adverse childhood experiences framework to understand the pervasive mental health impact of racism on Black youth.
        J Child Adolesc Trauma. 2020; 14: 233-247
        • Jackson D.B.
        The case for conceptualizing youth–police contact as a racialized adverse childhood experience.
        Am J Pub Health. 2021; 111: 1189-1221
        • Finkelhor D.
        • Shattuck A.
        • Turner H.
        • Hamby S.
        A revised inventory of adverse childhood experiences.
        Child Abuse Neglect. 2015; 48: 13-21
        • Weaver V.M.
        • Geller A.
        De-policing America’s youth: Disrupting criminal justice policy feedbacks that distort power and derail prospects.
        Ann Am Acad Politi Soc Sci. 2019; 685: 190-226