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Diagnosis and Acute Management of Adolescent Cannabinoid Hyperemesis Syndrome: A Systematic Review

      Abstract

      Purpose

      This study aimed to synthesize qualitative and quantitative data on the diagnosis and effective management of cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome (CHS) in the adolescent population.

      Methods

      Using keywords, 1,334 studies published between December 1954 and December 2019 were extracted from MEDLINE via PubMed, Embase via OVID, CINAHL via EBSCO, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library. Studies were evaluated by two independent reviewers using predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria.

      Results

      The search yielded 148 studies for full-text review, of which 21 were included in this systematic review. A total of 10 articles were related to the diagnosis of CHS, while 11 articles discussed the treatment and management of adolescent cases of CHS.

      Conclusions

      CHS in the adolescent population fulfills the major and minor diagnostic criteria of CHS in the adult population; however, in adolescent patients, CHS may present more frequently in females, with the earliest reported case presenting at age 15 years. There appears to be a substantial proportion (21%) of adolescent patients diagnosed with CHS that have a history of anxiety and depression; however, higher quality studies to assess the prevalence are warranted. Although haloperidol and topical capsaicin cream may provide symptom relief in isolated cases, complete cessation of cannabis use is currently the only known effective treatment.

      Keywords

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      Linked Article

      • The Coming Storm: Cannabis Hyperemesis Syndrome in Adolescents
        Journal of Adolescent HealthVol. 68Issue 2
        • Preview
          Acceptance of cannabis (Cannabis sativa, Cannabis indica, pot, grass, or marijuana) use is a growing phenomenon across the United States. The plant is dried, cured or oil extracted, then products smoked or vaporized to absorb its psychoactive compound tetrahydrocannabinol. As of this publication, there are 11 states where Cannabis use is legal in the United States and widespread efforts are underway to expand this further. Although the American Academy of Pediatrics policy regarding marijuana use states that “cannabis use can lead to impaired judgment concentration and coordination that increases risk of accidents,” it is the neuromodulator effects associated with cannabis use that are important to us as its effect on the developing nervous system are unclear [1,2].
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