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Scaling-up Normative Change Interventions for Adolescent and Youth Reproductive Health: An Examination of the Evidence

      Abstract

      Adolescent and youth reproductive health (AYRH) outcomes are influenced by factors beyond individual control. Increasingly, interventions are seeking to influence community-level normative change to support healthy AYRH behaviors. While evidence is growing of the effectiveness of AYRH interventions that include normative change components, understanding on how to achieve scale-up and wider impact of these programs remains limited. We analyzed peer-reviewed and gray literature from 2000 to 2017 describing 42 AYRH interventions with community-based normative change components that have scaled-up in low/middle-income countries. Only 13 of 42 interventions had significant scale-up documentation. We compared scale-up strategies, scale-up facilitators and barriers, and identified recommendations for future programs. All 13 interventions addressed individual, interpersonal, and community-level outcomes, such as community attitudes and behaviors related to AYRH. Scale-up strategies included expansion via new organizations, adapting original intervention designs, and institutionalization of activities into public-sector and/or nongovernmental organization structures. Four overarching factors facilitated or inhibited scale-up processes: availability of financial and human resources, transferability of intervention designs and materials, substantive community and government-sector partnerships, and monitoring capacity. Scaling-up multifaceted normative change interventions is possible but not well documented. The global AYRH community should prioritize documentation of scale-up processes and measurement to build evidence and inform future programming.

      Keywords

      Implications and Contribution
      Little evidence exists on how to integrate normative change efforts into AYRH programs at scale, outside of pilot efforts. This review examines the scale-up processes of 13 documented, successful AYRH interventions with significant normative change components and provides evidence and guidance for programmers seeking to scale-up these unique interventions.
      Adolescents (aged 10–19 years) and youth (aged 15–24 years) make up one-quarter of the world's population and represent the largest cohort of young people in history [
      UNFPA
      The state of world population 2014 - The power of 1.8 billion.
      ]. Adolescents and youth (aged 10–24 years) face a multitude of reproductive health risks that, if not managed, will have consequences that follow them into adulthood. Early pregnancy and child marriage are a reality for millions, curtailing educational and vocational opportunities and contributing to intergenerational cycles of poverty [
      UNFPA
      Motherhood in childhood: Facing the challenge of adolescent pregnancy.
      ]. Young people are still forming individual abilities, capacities, intentions, and agency. As such, they are susceptible to the influence of surrounding social systems that dictate social position and norms, the perceived attitudes or behaviors that are considered acceptable in a social group [
      • Mackie G.
      • Moneti F.
      • Shakya H.
      • et al.
      What are social norms? How are they measured?.
      ]. Structural barriers including lack of access to health services and economic assets further compound these factors [
      • Amin A.
      • Chandra-Mouli V.
      Empowering adolescent girls: Developing egalitarian gender norms and relations to end violence.
      ].
      Because adolescent and youth reproductive health (AYRH) outcomes and behaviors are influenced by the social norms outside of individual control, many believe that interventions to address AYRH must look beyond individual behavior change and seek to shift the negative normative environments that affect adolescents' well-being [
      • Svanemyr J.
      • Amin A.
      • Robles O.J.
      • et al.
      Creating an enabling environment for adolescent sexual and reproductive health: A framework and promising approaches.
      ,
      • Mmari K.
      • Sabherwal S.
      A review of risk and protective factors for adolescent sexual and reproductive health in developing countries: An update.
      ]. For example, a prevalent social norm in many countries is that girls should leave school, get married, and have children early. Shifting or replacing these norms with norms that value gender equity and girls education is likely to enable girls to delay marriage and childbearing. The global health community is increasingly integrating these community-focused normative change activities, defined as “strategies designed to catalyze communities to challenge existing social norms” [
      Institute for Reproductive Health, Georgetown University and Save the Children
      Scaling up normative change interventions for adolescent and youthsexual and reproductive health- Literature review findings and recommendations.
      ], into broader health programs. However, despite an increase in interest and implementation of these interventions, they are still a nascent area with little explicit guidance for program practice, measurement, and evaluation. As such, there remains a dearth of evidence on how best to foster normative change at scale to reach a larger population and thus achieve wider impact. Indeed, despite significant interest in scaling pilot interventions, little is known about how best to incorporate a norms focus into AYRH programs, demonstrate effectiveness of norms change or, subsequently, scale-up the normative change components of these interventions.
      In 2015, the U.S. Agency for International Development awarded the Passages project to a consortium of organizations led by the Institute for Reproductive Health at Georgetown University to support development and testing of scalable approaches to foster social norms that support safe reproductive health (RH) behaviors among adolescents and youth, including delaying pregnancy and spacing subsequent births. To better understand the available evidence on the scale-up of normative change interventions for AYRH, members of the Passages project conducted a review of the current evidence base. The results are summarized here.

      Literature Review

      Methodology

      In 2015, the Passages project Scale-up Task Team, led by Save the Children and Institute for Reproductive Health, conducted an exploratory literature review of the existing peer-reviewed and gray literature that describes the implementation or evaluation of AYRH interventions with normative change components that were in the process of, or had achieved, scale-up [
      Institute for Reproductive Health, Georgetown University and Save the Children
      Scaling up normative change interventions for adolescent and youthsexual and reproductive health- Literature review findings and recommendations.
      ]. Combinations of terms, from three main domains—normative change, scale-up, and AYRH interventions—were used to identify relevant literature from three open-access, multidisciplinary research databases that provided access to a wide range of publications: Google Scholar, ScienceDirect, and JSTOR [
      • Mmari K.
      • Sabherwal S.
      A review of risk and protective factors for adolescent sexual and reproductive health in developing countries: An update.
      ]. Relevant literature identified from these three databases was supplemented with additional literature identified through consultation with subject-matter experts. In total, 50 documents describing 42 interventions met the criteria for this initial broad review [
      Institute for Reproductive Health, Georgetown University and Save the Children
      Scaling up normative change interventions for adolescent and youthsexual and reproductive health- Literature review findings and recommendations.
      ]. Findings from this initial review, summarized in a separate report [
      Institute for Reproductive Health, Georgetown University and Save the Children
      Scaling up normative change interventions for adolescent and youthsexual and reproductive health- Literature review findings and recommendations.
      ], describe the community-based normative change interventions that were operating at scale to catalyze communities to challenge existing social norms that reinforce harmful attitudes and behaviors that lead to poor AYRH outcomes.
      Subsequently, as described in Figure 1, we conducted a second “phase” of review, which focused on interventions from the initial 42 that could offer insight into scaling-up AYRH normative interventions. The conceptual understanding of scale-up applied throughout the initial report and this review was guided by the ExpandNet scale-up framework [
      ExpandNet Secretariat and World Health Organization
      Nine steps for developing a scaling-up strategy.
      ], the scale-up strategy that has been employed by the Passages project. ExpandNet defines scale-up as “deliberate efforts to increase the impact of successfully tested health innovations …to benefit more people and to foster policy and program development on a lasting basis [
      ExpandNet Secretariat and World Health Organization
      Nine steps for developing a scaling-up strategy.
      ]”. ExpandNet categorizes organizations with expertise in intervention implementation as “resource organizations” and the organizations that are expected to replicate the intervention at a larger scale as “user organizations.”
      Figure thumbnail gr1
      Figure 1Process to identify interventions/documents for initial 2015 review and subsequent 2017 in-depth review of 42 normative interventions focused on AYRH going to scale. AYRH, adolescent and youth reproductive health.
      Since many of the identified interventions did not provide documentation of scale-up efforts, this second review retained only 13 interventions for further analysis. Interventions were included in this review if they documented both their normative change components and scale-up efforts, and if they fit the inclusion/exclusion criteria detailed in Figure 1. We then searched project websites between February 2017 and April 2017 to identify additional scale-up documentation on the 13 interventions. As a team, we reviewed the available literature and participated in meetings to reach consensus on common themes, and conclusions were extracted from the interventions. The documentation from both search phases was analyzed to (1) examine common characteristics of normative change interventions that were scaled-up; (2) explore scale-up processes employed; and (3) identify factors that facilitated or inhibited scale-up. While it was our original intent to document the intervention components that contributed to normative change, and how these specific components were scaled-up, it was often unclear in the documentation which components were explicitly responsible for normative change outcomes. In addition, it is unlikely that one component acts in isolation of other components to foster normative shifts. As a result, our analysis documents characteristics of and scale-up processes employed by interventions that included normative change components rather than characteristics directly attributable to normative change components.

      Results

      Intervention characteristics

      Table 1 summarizes the 13 interventions included: a brief description of their primary target populations and outcomes and information about where, when, and with whom they were carried out. As shown in the table, most of the interventions were implemented in Africa (n=10), and most lasted longer than 5 years from initial implementation to scale-up (n=11). In fact, the Tostan program reported a time frame of nearly 30 years over which it has been scaling-up (and adapting) its initial intervention [
      • Diop N.J.
      • Faye M.M.
      • Moreau A.
      • et al.
      The TOSTAN program evaluation of a community based education program in Senegal.
      ]. Given our selection criteria, all 13 interventions primarily targeted adolescents and youth and engaged secondary audiences in various normative change activities. These secondary audiences were the wider community (n=13), parents and family members (n=9), health providers (n=5), teachers (n=4), and cultural or community leaders (n=3). As all 13 interventions were focused on addressing AYRH, the most common target outcomes that the interventions sought to improve were RH knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among adolescents. Although all the interventions were selected because of their community-level normative change components, only 11 of the 13 interventions explicitly mentioned measuring attitudes, beliefs, or behaviors among community members as one of their primary outcomes.
      Table 1Description of 13 AYRH interventions with normative components that included scale-up phases
      InterventionRegion/country (bolded countries indicate pilot sites)Time frame (from testing to scale-up phases)Intervention description (primary population and outcomes targeted)Secondary populations reached
      Populations noted in italics are those that are not explicitly stated as target populations in the documentation but are nevertheless referred to in the documentation as having benefitted from or been affected by the programs.
      1. African Youth Alliance (AYA)
      • Williams T.
      • Mullen S.
      • Karim A.
      • et al.
      Evaluation of the African Youth Alliance Program in Ghana, Tanzania, and Uganda - Summary report.
      ,
      • Daniels U.
      Improving health, improving lives: Impact of the African Youth Alliance and new opportunities for programmes.
      ,
      JSI Research & Training Institute Inc
      Evaluation of the African Youth Alliance Program in Tanzania - impact on sexual and reproductive health behavior among young people.
      Botswana, Ghana, Tanzania, and Uganda2000–2005Primary population: in-school and out-of-school boys and girls (ages 10–24)

      Target outcomes: improve RH knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors (including modern contraceptive use and self-efficacy in negotiating condom use) and reduce STI and HIV/AIDS transmission
      Parents, teachers, community and religious leaders, health providers, policymakers, and general community
      2. Gender Roles Equality and Transformation (GREAT)
      ,
      Georgetown University's Institute for Reproductive Health
      The Gender Roles, Equality and Transformations (GREAT) project: From pilot to scale.
      ,
      Georgetown University's Institute for Reproductive Health
      GREAT Project endline report.
      ,
      Georgetown University's Institute for Reproductive Health
      The GREAT project - Results brief.
      Uganda2010–2017

      Scale-up: 3 years
      Primary population: unmarried boys and girls (ages 10–19), newly married or parenting adolescents, and their communities

      Target outcomes: improve RH knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors; promote gender-equitable attitudes and behaviors and reduce incidence of sexual and gender-based violence
      Parents, health providers, community health workers, and general community
      3. Geração Biz
      • Hainsworth G.
      • Zilhao I.
      • Badiana R.
      • et al.
      From inception to large scale: the Geraçao Biz Programme in Mozambique.
      ,
      • Chandra-Mouli V.
      • Gibbs S.
      • Badiani R.
      • et al.
      Programa Geração Biz, Mozambique: How did this adolescent health initiative grow from a pilot to a national programme, and what did it achieve?.
      Mozambique1999–2010

      Scale-up: 10 years
      Primary population:in-school and out-of-school youth (ages 10–24)

      Target outcomes: improve RH knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors (modern contraceptive use); reduce incidence of early or unintended pregnancies; and improve gender-equitable norms
      Parents, teachers, health providers, and general community
      4. Ishraq Program
      • Selim M.
      • Abdel-Tawab N.
      • Elsayed K.
      • et al.
      The Ishraq Program for out-of-school girls: From pilot to scale-up.
      Egypt2001–2013

      Scale-up: 9 years
      Primary population: out-of-school girls (ages 12–15)

      Target outcomes: improve RH knowledge and behaviors; improve health-seeking behavior; increase rates of school enrollment and attainment; delay early marriage and childbearing; increase girls' self-confidence; and improve gender-equitable norms

      Program later added a component targeting boys (ages 13–17) and a program for graduated girls (ages 18–28)
      Parents of adolescent girls, general community, and teachers
      5. Kenya Adolescent Reproductive Health Project
      • Evelia H.
      • et al.
      From pilot to program: Scaling up the Kenya adolescent reproductive health project.
      ,
      • Evelia H.
      • Wanjiru M.
      • Obare F.
      • et al.
      Ten years of the Kenya Adolescent Reproductive Health Project: What has happened?.
      ,
      • Askew I.
      • Evelia H.
      Mainstreaming and scaling up the Kenya Adolescent Reproductive Health Project.
      Kenya1999–2008

      Scale-up: 2 years
      Primary population: in-school and out-of-school boys and girls (ages 10–19)

      Target outcomes: improve RH knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors; reduce school dropout rates; improve community and parental acceptance of AYSRH
      Parents, teachers, health providers, government stakeholders, and general community
      6. MEMA kwa Vijana
      • Renju J.R.
      • Andrew B.
      • Medard L.
      • et al.
      Scaling up adolescent sexual and reproductive health interventions through existing government systems? A detailed process evaluation of a school-based intervention in Mwanza region in the northwest of Tanzania.
      ,
      • Renju J.
      • Andrew B.
      • Nyalali K.
      • et al.
      A process evaluation of the scale up of a youth-friendly health services initiative in northern Tanzania.
      ,
      • Renju J.
      • Makokha M.
      • Kato C.
      • et al.
      Partnering to proceed: Scaling up adolescent sexual reproductive health programmes in Tanzania. Operational research into the factors that influenced local government uptake and implementation.
      Tanzania1998–2008

      Scale-up: 4 years
      Population: primary school (grades 5–7) students (ages 10–15)

      Target outcome: improve RH knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors; increase contraceptive and youth-friendly service use; and reduce STI/HIV incidence
      Parents, teachers, government and ministry officials, and general community
      7. PRACHAR
      • Evelia H.
      • et al.
      From pilot to program: Scaling up the Kenya adolescent reproductive health project.
      ,
      • Wilder J.
      • Masilamani R.
      • Daniel E.
      Promoting change in the reproductive behavior of youth - Pathfinder International's PRACHAR project, Bihar, India.
      ,
      • Rahman M.
      • Daniel E.
      A reproductive health commmunication model that helps improve young women's reproductive life and reduce population growth: The case of PRACHAR from Bihar, India.
      India2001–2012

      Scale-up: 7 years
      Primary population: unmarried adolescent boys and girls, young married couples, and pregnant and postpartum women (ages 12–24)

      Targetoutcomes: improve RH knowledge and behaviors; delay age of marriage and age at first birth; increase contraception use and healthy birth spacing; and improve gender-equitable norms
      Parents and in-laws of adolescents and young couples, community leaders, general community, and health providers
      8. Program H & Program M
      • Ricardo C.
      • Nascimento M.
      • Fonseca V.
      • et al.
      Program H and Program M: Engaging young men and empowering young women to promote genderequality and health.
      ,
      • Barker G.
      • Nascimento M.
      • Segundo M.
      • et al.
      How do we know if men have changed? Promoting and measuring attitude change with young men.
      Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Mexico, Peru, Jamaica, Nicaragua, and India1999–2010

      Scale-up: 7 years
      Primary population: in-school and out-of-school youth; unmarried and married youth; and lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, or queer youth (ages 14–24)

      Target outcomes: improve RH knowledge, attitudes, behaviors; reduce incidence of gender-based violence; reduce drug use; improve couples' communication; and improve gender-equitable attitudes

      Program M added to reach women in 2003, then Entre Nos multimedia campaign added to complement and reach wider community
      General community
      9. SASA! Raising Voices
      • Heilman B.
      • Stich S.
      Revising the script - Taking community mobilization to scale for gender equality.
      ,
      • Abramsky T.
      • Devries K.
      • Kiss L.
      • et al.
      Findings from the SASA! Study: A cluster randomized controlled trial to assess the impact of a community mobilization intervention to prevent violence against women and reduce HIV risk in Kampala, Uganda.
      ,

      Carlson C. SASA! Mobilizing communities to inspire social change. Kampala, Uganda: Raising Voices. Available at http://raisingvoices.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/downloads/resources/Unpacking_Sasa!.pdf. Accessed March 4, 2019.

      Uganda2008–2012

      Scale-up: 3 years
      Primary population: youth (ages 15–24) and adult women and men

      Target outcomes: improve attitudes, behaviors, and norms related to gender inequality, gender-based violence, and HIV risk
      Community leaders and general community
      10. Sexto Sentido (part of Somos Diferentes, Somos Iguales)
      • Solórzano I.
      • Bank A.
      • Peña R.
      • et al.
      Catalyzing personal and social change around gender, sexuality, and HIV: Impact evaluation of Puntos de Encuentro's commuication strategy in Nicaragua.
      ,
      Puntos de Encuentro
      Impact data - Violence against women - Puntos de Encuentro.
      ,
      • Lacayo V.
      • Obregôn R.
      • Singhal A.
      Approaching social change as a complex problem in a world that treats it as a complicated one: The case of Puntos de Encuentro, Nicaragua.
      ,
      • Bank A.
      Sexto Sentido.
      Nicaragua, Bolivia, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, and USA2000–2005

      Scale-up: 3 years
      Primary population: adolescents and youth (ages 13–24)

      Target outcomes: improve RH service utilization and RH knowledge, behaviors, and outcomes; reduce STI/HIV prevalence; improve couples communication; improve gender-equitable attitudes and gender norms; and reduce gender-based violence
      General community
      11. South Africa Regional SBC Communication Program
      • Hutchison P.
      • Wheeler J.
      • Silvestre E.
      • et al.
      External evaluation of the Southern African Regional Social and Behaviour Change Communication Programme.
      ,
      • Wallace-Karenga K.
      Mainstreaming HIV, AIDS and gender into culture: A community education handbook: Part 1.
      Malawi, Zambia, Zimbabwe, South Africa, Mozambique, Lesotho, Namibia, and Swaziland2007–2011

      Scale-up: 4 years
      Primary population: youth (ages 15–24)

      Target outcomes: improve RH knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors; reduce STI/HIV incidence and prevalence; reduce gender-based violence, and reduce stigma against people living with HIV
      Health providers and general community
      12. Tostan (Community Empowerment Program)
      • Diop N.J.
      • Faye M.M.
      • Moreau A.
      • et al.
      The TOSTAN program evaluation of a community based education program in Senegal.
      ,

      Pathfinder International. PRACHAR: Advancing young people's sexual and reproductive health and rights in India. Watertown, MA: Pathfinder International; n.d.

      ,
      Tostan
      Community empowerment program - Program structure.
      Senegal, Burkina Faso, Djibouti, The Gambia, Guinea, Mali, Mauritania, Somalia, and Sudan1988–present (ongoing)Primary population: adolescents and adults (ages 13 and above)

      Target outcomes: improve RH knowledge, behaviors, and outcomes; improve the utilization of health services; reduce incidence of female genital mutilation; delay age at first birth and age at marriage; and improve gender norms
      Parents of girls and general community
      13. Young Empowered and Healthy Initiative (YEAH) (part of Health Communication Partnership)
      Health Communication Partnership
      The December 2010 Health Communication Partnership (HCP) and the Young Empowered and Health (Y.E.A.H.) midterm evaluation survey report.
      ,
      JHU Center for Communication Programs
      The Health Communication Partnership Uganda final report.
      Uganda2004–2013Primary population: adolescents and youth (ages 15–24)

      Target outcomes: improve RH knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and outcomes; improve school enrollment; improve gender-equitable attitudes; and reduce incidence of gender-based violence
      Adult men (ages 15–55), parents of adolescent girls, police force, and general community
      AYSRH = adolescent youth sexual reproductive heath; RH = reproductive health; STI = sexually transmitted infection.
      a Populations noted in italics are those that are not explicitly stated as target populations in the documentation but are nevertheless referred to in the documentation as having benefitted from or been affected by the programs.
      Table 2 provides a breakdown of the specific components implemented by each intervention as well as the type of key individual or community-level outcomes that each intervention measured. Community-level refers to activities that target groups in communities other than the primary target group of adolescents or youth whose behavior or health outcomes the program is seeking to shift. Thus, community-level outcomes measure change in secondary populations, such as parents, teachers, or health providers. All 13 interventions applied a multicomponent approach and implemented at least three intervention components. Many included curriculum-based family life education (n=4), peer education and support (n=5), or the creation of adolescent safe spaces (n=10). Social and behavior change communication activities, from interpersonal communication to mass media campaigns, were also popular (n=10). The mass media campaigns often accompanied community-level activities to expand an intervention's reach and mobilize action in communities [
      • Ricardo C.
      • Nascimento M.
      • Fonseca V.
      • et al.
      Program H and Program M: Engaging young men and empowering young women to promote genderequality and health.
      ,
      • Solórzano I.
      • Bank A.
      • Peña R.
      • et al.
      Catalyzing personal and social change around gender, sexuality, and HIV: Impact evaluation of Puntos de Encuentro's commuication strategy in Nicaragua.
      ,
      • Hutchison P.
      • Wheeler J.
      • Silvestre E.
      • et al.
      External evaluation of the Southern African Regional Social and Behaviour Change Communication Programme.
      ,
      Health Communication Partnership
      The December 2010 Health Communication Partnership (HCP) and the Young Empowered and Health (Y.E.A.H.) midterm evaluation survey report.
      ]. All 13 interventions encouraged community dialog on norms and AYRH topics through community group engagement activities. Many interventions also included structural components that aimed to strengthen youth-friendly health services (n=6) to improve access to quality services and to address policy through advocacy with government stakeholders (n=7). Some interventions also built the capacity of local partners (i.e., government and nongovernmental organizations [NGOs]) to manage intervention components, as part of their scale-up and sustainability efforts (n=9).
      Table 2Strategies utilized and key outcomes measured by included interventions
      Intervention componentsAdolescent and youth outcomesSecondary population attitudes, beliefs, or behaviorsNormative change findings or results
      FLEPeer education and supportAdol. safe spacesSBCCCGEHSSCapacity-building of user orgsPolicy and advocacyRH knowledge, attitudes, skills, or intentionsBehavior changeBiological health outcomes
      1. AYA
      Intervention strategies varied across country programs. In Tanzania, the intervention included a component that integrated into livelihoods programs. In Uganda, the resource organization partnered with CBOs and religious institutions to implement various intervention strategies to support adolescents.
      • Williams T.
      • Mullen S.
      • Karim A.
      • et al.
      Evaluation of the African Youth Alliance Program in Ghana, Tanzania, and Uganda - Summary report.
      ,
      • Daniels U.
      Improving health, improving lives: Impact of the African Youth Alliance and new opportunities for programmes.
      ,
      JSI Research & Training Institute Inc
      Evaluation of the African Youth Alliance Program in Tanzania - impact on sexual and reproductive health behavior among young people.
      +++No explicit evaluation of norms. Implied change due to improved supportive ARH policies and support for ARH and YFHS among community members, parents, and AY.
      2. GREAT
      ,
      Georgetown University's Institute for Reproductive Health
      The Gender Roles, Equality and Transformations (GREAT) project: From pilot to scale.
      ,
      Georgetown University's Institute for Reproductive Health
      GREAT Project endline report.
      ,
      Georgetown University's Institute for Reproductive Health
      The GREAT project - Results brief.
      +++Improved gender-equitable norms among community members, parents, and AY
      3. Geração Biz
      • Hainsworth G.
      • Zilhao I.
      • Badiana R.
      • et al.
      From inception to large scale: the Geraçao Biz Programme in Mozambique.
      ,
      • Chandra-Mouli V.
      • Gibbs S.
      • Badiani R.
      • et al.
      Programa Geração Biz, Mozambique: How did this adolescent health initiative grow from a pilot to a national programme, and what did it achieve?.
      +0No explicit evaluation of norms. Implied change among health providers due to improved quality and use of YFHS. Implied gender norms did not significantly change among AY.
      4. Ishraq Program
      • Selim M.
      • Abdel-Tawab N.
      • Elsayed K.
      • et al.
      The Ishraq Program for out-of-school girls: From pilot to scale-up.
      +++Improved gender-equitable norms among participants, parents, and community leaders.
      5. Kenya ARH Project
      • Evelia H.
      • et al.
      From pilot to program: Scaling up the Kenya adolescent reproductive health project.
      ,
      • Evelia H.
      • Wanjiru M.
      • Obare F.
      • et al.
      Ten years of the Kenya Adolescent Reproductive Health Project: What has happened?.
      ,
      • Askew I.
      • Evelia H.
      Mainstreaming and scaling up the Kenya Adolescent Reproductive Health Project.
      +++Improved parent-child discussions on SRH and norms related to discussing ARH topics among community members.
      6. MEMA kwa Vijana
      • Renju J.R.
      • Andrew B.
      • Medard L.
      • et al.
      Scaling up adolescent sexual and reproductive health interventions through existing government systems? A detailed process evaluation of a school-based intervention in Mwanza region in the northwest of Tanzania.
      ,
      • Renju J.
      • Andrew B.
      • Nyalali K.
      • et al.
      A process evaluation of the scale up of a youth-friendly health services initiative in northern Tanzania.
      ,
      • Renju J.
      • Makokha M.
      • Kato C.
      • et al.
      Partnering to proceed: Scaling up adolescent sexual reproductive health programmes in Tanzania. Operational research into the factors that influenced local government uptake and implementation.
      ++0+Improved norms related to discussing SRH with AY among teachers and health workers. Implied change due to increased community support for FLE for unmarried AY.
      7. PRACHAR
      • Evelia H.
      • et al.
      From pilot to program: Scaling up the Kenya adolescent reproductive health project.
      ,
      • Wilder J.
      • Masilamani R.
      • Daniel E.
      Promoting change in the reproductive behavior of youth - Pathfinder International's PRACHAR project, Bihar, India.
      ,
      • Rahman M.
      • Daniel E.
      A reproductive health commmunication model that helps improve young women's reproductive life and reduce population growth: The case of PRACHAR from Bihar, India.
      ++++Improved norms to delay child marriage and childbearing among AY and support from parents.
      8. Program H & Program M
      • Ricardo C.
      • Nascimento M.
      • Fonseca V.
      • et al.
      Program H and Program M: Engaging young men and empowering young women to promote genderequality and health.
      ,
      • Barker G.
      • Nascimento M.
      • Segundo M.
      • et al.
      How do we know if men have changed? Promoting and measuring attitude change with young men.
      +++Improved gender-equitable norms among community members and AY.
      9. SASA! Raising Voices
      • Heilman B.
      • Stich S.
      Revising the script - Taking community mobilization to scale for gender equality.
      ,
      • Abramsky T.
      • Devries K.
      • Kiss L.
      • et al.
      Findings from the SASA! Study: A cluster randomized controlled trial to assess the impact of a community mobilization intervention to prevent violence against women and reduce HIV risk in Kampala, Uganda.
      ,

      Carlson C. SASA! Mobilizing communities to inspire social change. Kampala, Uganda: Raising Voices. Available at http://raisingvoices.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/downloads/resources/Unpacking_Sasa!.pdf. Accessed March 4, 2019.

      +++No explicit evaluation of norms. Implied improved gender-equitable and SRH norms related to GBV among community members and AY due to reduction in GBV and more equitable behaviors and attitudes among community members.
      10. Sexto Sentido
      • Solórzano I.
      • Bank A.
      • Peña R.
      • et al.
      Catalyzing personal and social change around gender, sexuality, and HIV: Impact evaluation of Puntos de Encuentro's commuication strategy in Nicaragua.
      ,
      Puntos de Encuentro
      Impact data - Violence against women - Puntos de Encuentro.
      ,
      • Lacayo V.
      • Obregôn R.
      • Singhal A.
      Approaching social change as a complex problem in a world that treats it as a complicated one: The case of Puntos de Encuentro, Nicaragua.
      ,
      • Bank A.
      Sexto Sentido.
      +++Improved gender-equitable norms and norms related to sexuality among community members and AY
      11. South Africa Regional SBC Communication Program
      • Hutchison P.
      • Wheeler J.
      • Silvestre E.
      • et al.
      External evaluation of the Southern African Regional Social and Behaviour Change Communication Programme.
      ,
      • Wallace-Karenga K.
      Mainstreaming HIV, AIDS and gender into culture: A community education handbook: Part 1.
      +++Improved gender and SRH norms related to gender equity, GBV, and HIV
      12. Tostan
      • Diop N.J.
      • Faye M.M.
      • Moreau A.
      • et al.
      The TOSTAN program evaluation of a community based education program in Senegal.
      ,

      Pathfinder International. PRACHAR: Advancing young people's sexual and reproductive health and rights in India. Watertown, MA: Pathfinder International; n.d.

      ,
      Tostan
      Community empowerment program - Program structure.
      ++++Improved gender norms related to FGM to reduce FGM prevalence among community members and parents
      13. YEAH
      Health Communication Partnership
      The December 2010 Health Communication Partnership (HCP) and the Young Empowered and Health (Y.E.A.H.) midterm evaluation survey report.
      ,
      JHU Center for Communication Programs
      The Health Communication Partnership Uganda final report.
      +0+Improved gender and RH norms related to IPV and HIV among community members and AY
      Blank = not utilized or measured; + = positive significant change; 0 = no change in outcome.
      FLE = curriculum-based reproductive health (RH) education for both in-school and out-of-school populations; Adol. safe spaces = any mention of the creation of a safe physical or emotional space for adolescents (both same-sex and mixed-sex groups) to congregate or discuss AYSRH topics; SBCC = individual-level counseling and education and mass media campaigns; CGE = activities to engage or mobilize communities in group dialogs and action to promote behavior and attitude changes
      High-Impact Practices in Family Planning (HIPS)
      Community engagement: Changing norms to improve sexual and reproductive health.
      ; HSS = strengthening of and community linkages to YFHS; policy and advocacy efforts = any efforts with government stakeholders to create enabling and supportive policies to support AYSRH and rights; RH knowledge, attitudes, skills, or intentions = changes in knowledge/attitudes/skills related to RH topics such as family planning methods, STI and HIV prevention, anatomy, and puberty; behavior change = changes in reported health behaviors such as family planning use, use of health services, partner violence, school attendance, early marriage rates, and couples communication, or decision-making; biological health outcomes = changes in rates of early pregnancies, STI prevalence, prevalence of female genital mutilation, and so forth; secondary population attitude/beliefs/behaviors = changes in attitudes or behaviors related to gender equity, gender-based violence, AYRH topics, parent-child communication, HIV stigma, early marriage and pregnancy, and so forth, among the secondary population.
      ARH, adolescent reproductive health; AY = adolescents/youth; CBO = community-based organization; CGE = community group engagement; FGM = female genital mutilation; FLE = family life education; GBV = gender-based violence; HSS = health systems strengthening; IPV = intimate partner violence; SBCC = social and behavior change communication; SRH = sexual reproductive heath; YFHS = youth-friendly health services.
      a Intervention strategies varied across country programs. In Tanzania, the intervention included a component that integrated into livelihoods programs. In Uganda, the resource organization partnered with CBOs and religious institutions to implement various intervention strategies to support adolescents.
      Significant improvements in RH knowledge, attitudes, and skills among adolescents were reported by all interventions, and improvements in behavior changes, such as use of contraception, school attendance, and marriage rates, were reported for 11 interventions. Documentation from MEMA kwa Vijana, PRACHAR, and Tostan measured changes in biological health outcomes, but only PRACHAR and Tostan demonstrated improvements in outcomes, such as reduced pregnancy rates and incidence of sexually transmitted infections [
      • Renju J.R.
      • Andrew B.
      • Medard L.
      • et al.
      Scaling up adolescent sexual and reproductive health interventions through existing government systems? A detailed process evaluation of a school-based intervention in Mwanza region in the northwest of Tanzania.
      ,
      • Wilder J.
      • Masilamani R.
      • Daniel E.
      Promoting change in the reproductive behavior of youth - Pathfinder International's PRACHAR project, Bihar, India.
      ,
      • Diop N.J.
      • Faye M.M.
      • Moreau A.
      • et al.
      The TOSTAN program evaluation of a community based education program in Senegal.
      ].
      Although only 11 of the interventions described efforts to target a normative outcome in their intervention design, all 13 interventions measured changes in the attitudes, beliefs, or behaviors of the secondary populations, thereby acknowledging the influence of the secondary populations' attitudes or norms on AYRH outcomes. Although not specified in Table 2, the interventions that measured the attitudes and beliefs of the secondary populations measured three types of change: attitudes toward AYRH topics and behaviors (n=11), gender-equitable attitudes (n=9), and acceptance or incidence of gender-based violence (n=7).

      Scale-up strategies

      Table 3 summarizes the application of frequently used scale-up strategies: (1) expanding to a larger geographic region, (2) expanding to more user organizations (to achieve greater reach or depth), (3) adapting program content and range of services offered, (4) adapting program design to reach new populations, and (5) institutionalizing the intervention into the public sector. As reflected in Table 3, 11 of the 13 interventions employed more than one of these strategies to achieve wider impact. One intervention, MEMA Kwa Vijana, lacked documentation related to the scale-up of its normative change components. However, the intervention was included in the review because it used a normative change strategy during pilot implementation and documented the scale-up of all activities besides the normative activity. Although the African Youth Alliance (AYA) intervention was implemented in four countries, the only scale-up documentation on the normative components available was specific to implementation in Uganda [
      ].
      Table 3Five types of strategies utilized to scale-up normative components in the 13 included interventions and prevalence of each
      Expanding to a larger geographic region in-country or replication in new countriesExpanding to more user organizations (e.g., local NGOs/community-based organizations, or international NGOs)Adapting program design to increase depth and scope of the services offeredAdapting program design to reach new primary populationsInstitutionalizing the intervention into the public sector
      No. of interventions utilizing this strategy1112527
      Intervention name
       1. AYA
      Available documentation specific to scale-up experience in Uganda.
      • Williams T.
      • Mullen S.
      • Karim A.
      • et al.
      Evaluation of the African Youth Alliance Program in Ghana, Tanzania, and Uganda - Summary report.
      ,
      • Daniels U.
      Improving health, improving lives: Impact of the African Youth Alliance and new opportunities for programmes.
      ,
      JSI Research & Training Institute Inc
      Evaluation of the African Youth Alliance Program in Tanzania - impact on sexual and reproductive health behavior among young people.
       2. GREAT
      ,
      Georgetown University's Institute for Reproductive Health
      The Gender Roles, Equality and Transformations (GREAT) project: From pilot to scale.
      ,
      Georgetown University's Institute for Reproductive Health
      GREAT Project endline report.
      ,
      Georgetown University's Institute for Reproductive Health
      The GREAT project - Results brief.


      Scale-up to new districts
       3. Geração Biz
      • Hainsworth G.
      • Zilhao I.
      • Badiana R.
      • et al.
      From inception to large scale: the Geraçao Biz Programme in Mozambique.
      ,
      • Chandra-Mouli V.
      • Gibbs S.
      • Badiani R.
      • et al.
      Programa Geração Biz, Mozambique: How did this adolescent health initiative grow from a pilot to a national programme, and what did it achieve?.


      Nation-wide scale-up
       4. Ishraq Program
      • Selim M.
      • Abdel-Tawab N.
      • Elsayed K.
      • et al.
      The Ishraq Program for out-of-school girls: From pilot to scale-up.


      Scale-up to new villages
       5. Kenya ARH Project
      • Evelia H.
      • et al.
      From pilot to program: Scaling up the Kenya adolescent reproductive health project.
      ,
      • Evelia H.
      • Wanjiru M.
      • Obare F.
      • et al.
      Ten years of the Kenya Adolescent Reproductive Health Project: What has happened?.
      ,
      • Askew I.
      • Evelia H.
      Mainstreaming and scaling up the Kenya Adolescent Reproductive Health Project.


      Scale-up to new provinces
       6. MEMA kwa Vijana
      • Renju J.R.
      • Andrew B.
      • Medard L.
      • et al.
      Scaling up adolescent sexual and reproductive health interventions through existing government systems? A detailed process evaluation of a school-based intervention in Mwanza region in the northwest of Tanzania.
      ,
      • Renju J.
      • Andrew B.
      • Nyalali K.
      • et al.
      A process evaluation of the scale up of a youth-friendly health services initiative in northern Tanzania.
      ,
      • Renju J.
      • Makokha M.
      • Kato C.
      • et al.
      Partnering to proceed: Scaling up adolescent sexual reproductive health programmes in Tanzania. Operational research into the factors that influenced local government uptake and implementation.
      While scaling-up, this program eliminated the normative component of the program due to challenges related to continuing community-level activities at wider scale.
       7. PRACHAR
      • Evelia H.
      • et al.
      From pilot to program: Scaling up the Kenya adolescent reproductive health project.
      ,
      • Wilder J.
      • Masilamani R.
      • Daniel E.
      Promoting change in the reproductive behavior of youth - Pathfinder International's PRACHAR project, Bihar, India.
      ,
      • Rahman M.
      • Daniel E.
      A reproductive health commmunication model that helps improve young women's reproductive life and reduce population growth: The case of PRACHAR from Bihar, India.


      Scale-up to new districts
       8. Program H & Program M
      • Ricardo C.
      • Nascimento M.
      • Fonseca V.
      • et al.
      Program H and Program M: Engaging young men and empowering young women to promote genderequality and health.
      ,
      • Barker G.
      • Nascimento M.
      • Segundo M.
      • et al.
      How do we know if men have changed? Promoting and measuring attitude change with young men.


      Scale-up to new countries
       9. SASA! Raising Voices
      • Heilman B.
      • Stich S.
      Revising the script - Taking community mobilization to scale for gender equality.
      ,
      • Abramsky T.
      • Devries K.
      • Kiss L.
      • et al.
      Findings from the SASA! Study: A cluster randomized controlled trial to assess the impact of a community mobilization intervention to prevent violence against women and reduce HIV risk in Kampala, Uganda.
      ,

      Carlson C. SASA! Mobilizing communities to inspire social change. Kampala, Uganda: Raising Voices. Available at http://raisingvoices.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/downloads/resources/Unpacking_Sasa!.pdf. Accessed March 4, 2019.



      Scale-up to new countries
       10. Sexto Sentido
      • Solórzano I.
      • Bank A.
      • Peña R.
      • et al.
      Catalyzing personal and social change around gender, sexuality, and HIV: Impact evaluation of Puntos de Encuentro's commuication strategy in Nicaragua.
      ,
      Puntos de Encuentro
      Impact data - Violence against women - Puntos de Encuentro.
      ,
      • Lacayo V.
      • Obregôn R.
      • Singhal A.
      Approaching social change as a complex problem in a world that treats it as a complicated one: The case of Puntos de Encuentro, Nicaragua.
      ,
      • Bank A.
      Sexto Sentido.


      Scale-up to new countries
       11. South Africa Regional SBC Communication Program
      • Hutchison P.
      • Wheeler J.
      • Silvestre E.
      • et al.
      External evaluation of the Southern African Regional Social and Behaviour Change Communication Programme.
      ,
      • Wallace-Karenga K.
      Mainstreaming HIV, AIDS and gender into culture: A community education handbook: Part 1.


      Scale-up in multiple countries
       12. Tostan
      • Diop N.J.
      • Faye M.M.
      • Moreau A.
      • et al.
      The TOSTAN program evaluation of a community based education program in Senegal.
      ,

      Pathfinder International. PRACHAR: Advancing young people's sexual and reproductive health and rights in India. Watertown, MA: Pathfinder International; n.d.

      ,
      Tostan
      Community empowerment program - Program structure.


      Scale-up to new countries
       13. YEAH
      Health Communication Partnership
      The December 2010 Health Communication Partnership (HCP) and the Young Empowered and Health (Y.E.A.H.) midterm evaluation survey report.
      ,
      JHU Center for Communication Programs
      The Health Communication Partnership Uganda final report.


      Nation-wide scale-up
      ARH = adolescent reproductive health; AYA = African Youth Alliance; GREAT = Gender Roles, Equality and Transformation; SBC = social and behavior change; YEAH = Young Empowered and Healthy Initiative.
      Blank = available program documentation did not mention the category as a scale-up strategy utilized.
      a Available documentation specific to scale-up experience in Uganda.
      Interventions expanded geographically, either in the same country where the pilot occurred or through replication in new countries. The extent of geographic expansion varied. Four interventions (i.e., Gender Roles, Equality and Transformation [GREAT]; Ishraq; Kenya Adolescent Reproductive Health Project [KARHP]; and PRACHAR) were each piloted and scaled-up to additional districts within the same country [
      Georgetown University's Institute for Reproductive Health
      The Gender Roles, Equality and Transformations (GREAT) project: From pilot to scale.
      ,
      • Selim M.
      • Abdel-Tawab N.
      • Elsayed K.
      • et al.
      The Ishraq Program for out-of-school girls: From pilot to scale-up.
      ,
      • Evelia H.
      • et al.
      From pilot to program: Scaling up the Kenya adolescent reproductive health project.
      ,
      • Wilder J.
      • Masilamani R.
      • Daniel E.
      Promoting change in the reproductive behavior of youth - Pathfinder International's PRACHAR project, Bihar, India.
      ,

      Pathfinder International. PRACHAR: Advancing young people's sexual and reproductive health and rights in India. Watertown, MA: Pathfinder International; n.d.

      ]. Six interventions scaled-up internationally. Program H and Sexto Sentido were piloted in one country and then replicated in new countries by user organizations [
      • Ricardo C.
      • Nascimento M.
      • Fonseca V.
      • et al.
      Program H and Program M: Engaging young men and empowering young women to promote genderequality and health.
      ,
      • Solórzano I.
      • Bank A.
      • Peña R.
      • et al.
      Catalyzing personal and social change around gender, sexuality, and HIV: Impact evaluation of Puntos de Encuentro's commuication strategy in Nicaragua.
      ]; two interventions expanded within the pilot country first, and then replicated in new countries by new user organizations (i.e., SASA! Raising Voices, Tostan) [
      • Heilman B.
      • Stich S.
      Revising the script - Taking community mobilization to scale for gender equality.
      ,
      • Diop N.J.
      • Faye M.M.
      • Moreau A.
      • et al.
      The TOSTAN program evaluation of a community based education program in Senegal.
      ]; and two were implemented as pilot interventions in multiple countries from the beginning, scaling-up through different partners in each country (i.e., AYA, Southern African Regional Social and Behavior Change Communication Project) [
      • Evelia H.
      • Wanjiru M.
      • Obare F.
      • et al.
      Ten years of the Kenya Adolescent Reproductive Health Project: What has happened?.
      ,
      • Hutchison P.
      • Wheeler J.
      • Silvestre E.
      • et al.
      External evaluation of the Southern African Regional Social and Behaviour Change Communication Programme.
      ].
      The most common scale-up strategy was to increase the number and capacity of user organizations during and after pilot implementation to create wider networks of organizations with the capacity for broad reach and impact. For example, PRACHAR built the capacity of local NGO and government partners as user organizations at every stage of its planned expansion through a “learning-by-doing” approach, building skills beyond those related to reproductive health topics. The resource organization held classroom orientations, conducted field exposure visits, and provided support to build the competencies of the user organizations' staff in project management, budgeting, and monitoring [
      • Wilder J.
      • Masilamani R.
      • Daniel E.
      Promoting change in the reproductive behavior of youth - Pathfinder International's PRACHAR project, Bihar, India.
      ].
      To facilitate scale-up in new contexts, five interventions adapted activities, increasing the depth of services provided, to better meet needs of new user organizations and communities. The KARHP, for example, tested a streamlined package of activities that included successful components of its intervention during adaptation, and then added additional community outreach and income-generation activities to better support its target populations, based on feedback from the community [
      • Evelia H.
      • et al.
      From pilot to program: Scaling up the Kenya adolescent reproductive health project.
      ]. Two interventions also adapted activities to reach new primary populations. In the case of Ishraq, the resource organization added two additional program components requested by the communities; a parallel life skills and sexual reproductive heath program for adolescent boys and services for older female graduates who needed support to transition into the formal schooling system [
      • Selim M.
      • Abdel-Tawab N.
      • Elsayed K.
      • et al.
      The Ishraq Program for out-of-school girls: From pilot to scale-up.
      ].
      Seven of the interventions documented efforts to work with government ministries to be institutionalized into the public sector. The implementing organizations did so by delegating responsibilities for managing at least one component of the intervention to a relevant government entity. In these cases, to ensure the impact observed during the pilot could be replicated and sustained through the public sector, the resource organizations worked with government stakeholders to build their capacity to plan, budget, and manage implementation of activities under existing government initiatives. For example, Geração Biz was designed and implemented with the Mozambican Ministries of Health, Education, and Youth and Sports. The resource organization worked closely with the Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Education to manage the youth-friendly health services and in-school family life education components of the intervention. The Ministry of Youth and Sports, responsible for managing the community-based peer education activities, received support to develop the peer education materials and manage community group events. The resource organization also supported capacity building of relevant provincial-level offices within each ministry and facilitated intersectoral meetings across the ministries to ensure that activities were integrated into each ministry's operating budget [
      • Hainsworth G.
      • Zilhao I.
      • Badiana R.
      • et al.
      From inception to large scale: the Geraçao Biz Programme in Mozambique.
      ].
      The five interventions that did not attempt institutionalization within the public sector focused instead on building the capacity of NGO user organizations to budget for, manage, and monitor activities. SASA! Raising Voices (SASA!) and Sexto Sentido, for example, both identified and built networks of local community-based organization and NGOs that could lead implementation of the community-level activities, and they both provided ongoing technical assistance (e.g., trainings, guidance on monitoring tool development) to support the user organizations to work with youth and address RH issues in their own communities throughout the pilot and during scale-up [

      Pathfinder International. PRACHAR: Advancing young people's sexual and reproductive health and rights in India. Watertown, MA: Pathfinder International; n.d.

      ,
      Health Communication Partnership
      The December 2010 Health Communication Partnership (HCP) and the Young Empowered and Health (Y.E.A.H.) midterm evaluation survey report.
      ]. For example, in lieu of public-sector program standards to guide quality implementation, SASA! also developed an implementation toolkit to help NGO user organizations manage program activities [

      Pathfinder International. PRACHAR: Advancing young people's sexual and reproductive health and rights in India. Watertown, MA: Pathfinder International; n.d.

      ].

      Factors facilitating and challenging scale-up processes

      Across the reviewed literature, we identified four categories of factors that were mentioned as facilitators or challenges to scale-up success: (1) resource needs, (2) intervention design, (3) partnerships for sustainability, and (4) monitoring and evaluation (M&E) systems and data. Distribution of the documentation of these factors across interventions is depicted in Table 4. In some cases, it was difficult to distinguish whether the facilitators and challenges discussed were related to the success of implementation generally or to the scale-up process more specifically.
      Table 4Factors identified as facilitators or challenges to scale-up efforts of normative strategies of each of the 13 included interventions
      Resource needsIntervention designPartnerships for sustainabilityMonitoring and evaluation systems and data
      Financial resourcesHuman resourcesContent and structureAdaptability of programmingCommunity support and engagementGovernment support and ownership
      No. interventions that cited a facilitating factor74731097
      No. interventions that cited a challenging factor5541332
      1. AYA
      Available documentation specific to project scale-up experience in Uganda.
      • Williams T.
      • Mullen S.
      • Karim A.
      • et al.
      Evaluation of the African Youth Alliance Program in Ghana, Tanzania, and Uganda - Summary report.
      ,
      • Daniels U.
      Improving health, improving lives: Impact of the African Youth Alliance and new opportunities for programmes.
      ,
      JSI Research & Training Institute Inc
      Evaluation of the African Youth Alliance Program in Tanzania - impact on sexual and reproductive health behavior among young people.
       FacilitatorsAdvocacy and partnerships with Uganda Kingdoms led to select Kingdoms securing financial resources to take on project initiativesCommunities (including religious institutions) participated in all stages of programming, building capacity to analyze and address AYRH issuesPolicymakers involved in all stages of programming, and partnerships with Uganda Kingdoms created supportive AYRH policies
       ChallengesNo challenges to scale-up documented
      GREAT
      ,
      Georgetown University's Institute for Reproductive Health
      The Gender Roles, Equality and Transformations (GREAT) project: From pilot to scale.
      ,
      Georgetown University's Institute for Reproductive Health
      GREAT Project endline report.
      ,
      Georgetown University's Institute for Reproductive Health
      The GREAT project - Results brief.
       FacilitatorsUsed a “low-investment approach” design and user organizations could leverage financial resources to integrate GREAT components into existing programmingBuilding capacity of staff to understand own gender norms supported community-level work, building sustainability of activities. Resource organization prepared for transition as implementer to capacity builder, provided mentoring to user organizations to lead activitiesConceptualized with “scale in mind”; developed a toolkit with guides that can be easily used by user organizations; worked through existing community mechanismsReceived positive support from community members; active and early engagement with potential user organizations helped build local ownership and sustainability of GREAT componentsAssigned scale-up coordination responsibilities to MOH and district stakeholders, thus ensuring ownership of scale-upPartnered with user organizations and stakeholders to develop monitoring, evaluation, and learning system and indicators in line with district databases and M&E systems
       ChallengesThe Community Action Cycle component was difficult for user organizations to understand and required repeated trainings and capacity-building initiativesExisting village health teams were overworked and resource organizations experienced high staff turnoverNot enough community participation necessary to achieve wide diffusion and reach the tipping point for social normative changeUser organizations needed capacity building from the resource organization to support M&E system
      2. Geração Biz
      • Hainsworth G.
      • Zilhao I.
      • Badiana R.
      • et al.
      From inception to large scale: the Geraçao Biz Programme in Mozambique.
      ,
      • Chandra-Mouli V.
      • Gibbs S.
      • Badiani R.
      • et al.
      Programa Geração Biz, Mozambique: How did this adolescent health initiative grow from a pilot to a national programme, and what did it achieve?.
       FacilitatorsUser organizations could continue activities through integrating program costs into operating budgetsLocal user organizations expressed interest and could integrate program costs into operating budgetsGovernment showed commitment and ministries were involved in development and implementation of interventionAvailability of M&E data helped adapt activities and developed M&E system to be adaptable for user organizations
       ChallengesCosts to implement across sectors and at various administrative levels were substantialHigh staff turnover, requiring follow-up and additional technical assistance from the resource organization. Gender inequity among peer educators and inadequate gender sensitivity training may have affected program effect on social normative changeM&E systems were inconsistent across provinces, requiring significant time and support from resource organization
      3. Ishraq Program
      • Selim M.
      • Abdel-Tawab N.
      • Elsayed K.
      • et al.
      The Ishraq Program for out-of-school girls: From pilot to scale-up.
       FacilitatorsCreated steps to integrate graduates into formal schooling and existing systemsActivities easily fit into government systems and initiativesLocal communities maintained support and demand for project to continue and were very involved in community activitiesGovernment ministries involved in design and implementation; increased attention to improving AYRHRigorous M&E system allowed for effective learning and implementation of adjustments to streamline activities
       ChallengesCost of providing continued support to graduates needed to be raised from local fundsGraduates aged out of formal program and required additional supportLack of government legal records and documentation for graduated girls made it difficult to access public services
      4. Kenya ARH Project
      • Evelia H.
      • et al.
      From pilot to program: Scaling up the Kenya adolescent reproductive health project.
      ,
      • Evelia H.
      • Wanjiru M.
      • Obare F.
      • et al.
      Ten years of the Kenya Adolescent Reproductive Health Project: What has happened?.
      ,
      • Askew I.
      • Evelia H.
      Mainstreaming and scaling up the Kenya Adolescent Reproductive Health Project.
       FacilitatorsCosting activities helped to identify essential program components for replication and MOH could leverage resources to integrate activities in existing initiativesAvailability of implementation tools and guidance documents facilitated transition to user organizationsLocal community expressed high demand and was very engaged with community activitiesSupportive government policies brought attention to project and integration of various intervention components into MOH initiativesStrong pilot data and dissemination showcased evidence and generated buy-in to adapt and refine for scale-up
       ChallengesLack of sufficient resources for all componentsHigh turnover of relevant staff required high level of continued external technical assistance and additional retrainingIntegrating activities into ministries was difficult due to the complex government systems
      5. MEMA kwa Vijana
      • Renju J.R.
      • Andrew B.
      • Medard L.
      • et al.
      Scaling up adolescent sexual and reproductive health interventions through existing government systems? A detailed process evaluation of a school-based intervention in Mwanza region in the northwest of Tanzania.
      ,
      • Renju J.
      • Andrew B.
      • Nyalali K.
      • et al.
      A process evaluation of the scale up of a youth-friendly health services initiative in northern Tanzania.
      ,
      • Renju J.
      • Makokha M.
      • Kato C.
      • et al.
      Partnering to proceed: Scaling up adolescent sexual reproductive health programmes in Tanzania. Operational research into the factors that influenced local government uptake and implementation.
      Scale-up of normative components not documented
      6. PRACHAR
      • Evelia H.
      • et al.
      From pilot to program: Scaling up the Kenya adolescent reproductive health project.
      ,
      • Wilder J.
      • Masilamani R.
      • Daniel E.
      Promoting change in the reproductive behavior of youth - Pathfinder International's PRACHAR project, Bihar, India.
      ,
      • Rahman M.
      • Daniel E.
      A reproductive health commmunication model that helps improve young women's reproductive life and reduce population growth: The case of PRACHAR from Bihar, India.
       FacilitatorsBuilding capacity of local NGO staff and community members who led activities to understand own norms and internalize their role as change agents enhanced performanceAdaptable activities and systems to respond to the needs of community and user organizationsCommunities were engaged in activities; consistent partnerships with local user organizations from the start fostered commitmentRigorous M&E data showed evidence of project impact, which generated local support and demand
       ChallengesMultiple components were too large for public sector, requiring refinement/adaptation
      7. Program H & Program M
      • Ricardo C.
      • Nascimento M.
      • Fonseca V.
      • et al.
      Program H and Program M: Engaging young men and empowering young women to promote genderequality and health.
      ,
      • Barker G.
      • Nascimento M.
      • Segundo M.
      • et al.
      How do we know if men have changed? Promoting and measuring attitude change with young men.
       FacilitatorsResource organization budgeted for capacity building of user organizations as part of scale-up efforts and made materials available at no costDeveloped materials for user organizations to adopt and made them readily availableCommunities showed strong interest and engagement and built capacity of user organizations as part of activities and program costsInitiated early engagement with government stakeholders and supported government to integrate project activities into ongoing initiativesRigorous data and results from adaptations in multiple countries demonstrated programs' effectiveness
       ChallengesRecruitment and commitment of participants due to competing priorities was difficult
      8. SASA! Raising Voices
      • Heilman B.
      • Stich S.
      Revising the script - Taking community mobilization to scale for gender equality.
      ,
      • Abramsky T.
      • Devries K.
      • Kiss L.
      • et al.
      Findings from the SASA! Study: A cluster randomized controlled trial to assess the impact of a community mobilization intervention to prevent violence against women and reduce HIV risk in Kampala, Uganda.
      ,

      Carlson C. SASA! Mobilizing communities to inspire social change. Kampala, Uganda: Raising Voices. Available at http://raisingvoices.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/downloads/resources/Unpacking_Sasa!.pdf. Accessed March 4, 2019.

       FacilitatorsDiscussion leaders were unpaid volunteers but still showed commitment and engagement; the resource organization made online trainings and program materials available to user organizations at no costProgram addressed social norms of staff and volunteers first, empowering them to take action and building their commitment to community mobilization activitiesIntervention focused on empowerment rather than negative behaviorsDeveloped an open-source toolkit that is publicly available and freely distributes supplementary materials and online trainingsMessages diffused outside of target population showing strong interest among participants; community advocacy activities built support among user organizationsFostering relationships with and support from local government leaders built interest and support of activitiesM&E tools developed are easy to use and strong impact demonstrated
       ChallengesShort-term donor cycles cited as a barrier to achieving the long-term normative change necessary to replicate impact at scaleDifficult to monitor use of freely available materials to ensure fidelity to core componentsCommunity mobilization process can be difficult and costly
      9. Sexto Sentido
      • Solórzano I.
      • Bank A.
      • Peña R.
      • et al.
      Catalyzing personal and social change around gender, sexuality, and HIV: Impact evaluation of Puntos de Encuentro's commuication strategy in Nicaragua.
      ,
      Puntos de Encuentro
      Impact data - Violence against women - Puntos de Encuentro.
      ,
      • Lacayo V.
      • Obregôn R.
      • Singhal A.
      Approaching social change as a complex problem in a world that treats it as a complicated one: The case of Puntos de Encuentro, Nicaragua.
      ,
      • Bank A.
      Sexto Sentido.
       FacilitatorsAvailability of telenovela episodes and group discussion materials for user organizationsStrong partnership and support from civil society organizations that became user organizations; target populations generated demand for programSupportive policy environment with government ownership
       ChallengesNo challenges to scale-up documented
      10. South Africa Regional SBC Communication Program
      • Hutchison P.
      • Wheeler J.
      • Silvestre E.
      • et al.
      External evaluation of the Southern African Regional Social and Behaviour Change Communication Programme.
      ,
      • Wallace-Karenga K.
      Mainstreaming HIV, AIDS and gender into culture: A community education handbook: Part 1.
      Facilitators and challenges noted were related to pilot implementation and not specifically to scale-up efforts.
      11. Tostan
      • Diop N.J.
      • Faye M.M.
      • Moreau A.
      • et al.
      The TOSTAN program evaluation of a community based education program in Senegal.
      ,

      Pathfinder International. PRACHAR: Advancing young people's sexual and reproductive health and rights in India. Watertown, MA: Pathfinder International; n.d.

      ,
      Tostan
      Community empowerment program - Program structure.
       FacilitatorsResource organization accounted for costs related to capacity building and mentoring of user organization staffResource organization mentored and built capacity of user organizations to manage program and understand underlying normsContent avoided focus of negative behavior; focus on noncombative manner reinforced women's empowerment messagesCommunity showed enthusiasm for activities; inclusion of capacity-building activities with local user organizations built local ownershipEventually gained support from government bodies that made public declarations to end female genital cutting
       ChallengesDifficult to find local residents to serve as facilitators, increasing program costsSome content was too difficult for facilitators to discuss, leading to changes in core program components and messagesThe complexity of female genital mutilation norms in countries where practice is universal made it difficult to initiate behavior changeOpposition from some community and religious leaders; lack of community participation without tangible incentivesSome countries faced challenges gaining support from government stakeholders at start
      12. YEAH
      Health Communication Partnership
      The December 2010 Health Communication Partnership (HCP) and the Young Empowered and Health (Y.E.A.H.) midterm evaluation survey report.
      ,
      JHU Center for Communication Programs
      The Health Communication Partnership Uganda final report.
      Facilitators and challenges noted were related to pilot implementation and not specifically to scale-up efforts.
      Blank = available program documentation did not mention the category as a facilitator of their scale-up effort.
      ARH = adolescent reproductive health; AYA = African Youth Alliance; AYRH = adolescent and youth reproductive health; GREAT = Gender Roles, Equality and Transformation; M&E = monitoring and evaluation; MOH = Ministry of Health; SBC = social and behavior change; YEAH = Young Empowered and Healthy Initiative.
      a Available documentation specific to project scale-up experience in Uganda.

      Resource needs

      Eight of the interventions identified the need for financial and human resources to support scale-up. In most instances, the documentation referenced financial resources as a facilitator to scale-up as resource organizations supported user organizations to incorporate activities into their operational budgets. The development of low-cost materials was also cited as a facilitator to scale-up. For example, SASA! was able to reduce the financial burden among user organizations by providing free online program materials and tools, but because it did not have staff who could monitor the use of materials, the organization could not ensure fidelity to the intervention's core components [

      Pathfinder International. PRACHAR: Advancing young people's sexual and reproductive health and rights in India. Watertown, MA: Pathfinder International; n.d.

      ]. GREAT's “low-investment approach” design of a toolkit and activities that could be adopted by existing community groups limited the financial burden placed on user organizations to replicate activities, enabling them to leverage their own resources to integrate GREAT's activities into existing initiatives [
      ].
      Human resources were most often identified as facilitators when resource organizations successfully built the capacity of user organization staff to ensure program fidelity and manage activities. Tostan, for example, mentors and trains user organizations to manage activities in their own communities to support scale-up [

      Pathfinder International. PRACHAR: Advancing young people's sexual and reproductive health and rights in India. Watertown, MA: Pathfinder International; n.d.

      ]. In addition to ensuring the technical capacity of staff in user organizations, many resource organizations supported staff to examine and reflect upon their own values and norms [

      Pathfinder International. PRACHAR: Advancing young people's sexual and reproductive health and rights in India. Watertown, MA: Pathfinder International; n.d.

      ]. For instance, documentation of the PRACHAR project stressed the importance of training project staff and volunteers to reflect on their own norms, to be empowered to take action and build their commitment to the project's objectives [
      • Renju J.R.
      • Andrew B.
      • Medard L.
      • et al.
      Scaling up adolescent sexual and reproductive health interventions through existing government systems? A detailed process evaluation of a school-based intervention in Mwanza region in the northwest of Tanzania.
      ]. Not surprisingly, a lack of financial or human resources was often cited as a challenge to scale-up efforts. High staff turnover among user organizations, mentioned by three interventions, required resource organizations to invest additional time and financial resources to train new staff [
      ,
      • Hainsworth G.
      • Zilhao I.
      • Badiana R.
      • et al.
      From inception to large scale: the Geraçao Biz Programme in Mozambique.
      ,
      • Selim M.
      • Abdel-Tawab N.
      • Elsayed K.
      • et al.
      The Ishraq Program for out-of-school girls: From pilot to scale-up.
      ].

      Intervention design

      Intervention design appeared to play a key role as both a facilitator and an impediment to scale-up. Seven interventions noted the content or structure of their intervention as a facilitator of scale-up. The KARHP and GREAT are two such examples. Both planned for and developed implementation toolkits or guidance materials during pilot implementation, which later facilitated scale-up through user organizations [
      ,
      • Selim M.
      • Abdel-Tawab N.
      • Elsayed K.
      • et al.
      The Ishraq Program for out-of-school girls: From pilot to scale-up.
      ].
      Four interventions cited a need to further modify intervention design during the scale-up phase as a challenge. In some cases, the intervention activities implemented during the pilot phase were too costly for user organizations to continue or replicate. For example, in response to concerns that the SASA!'s community mobilization process was difficult and costly, it created nonmonetary incentives to engage volunteers for the project. The nonmonetary incentives took the form of capacity-building opportunities as well as the ability to obtain recognition from peers for serving as change agents in the community [

      Pathfinder International. PRACHAR: Advancing young people's sexual and reproductive health and rights in India. Watertown, MA: Pathfinder International; n.d.

      ]. Such adaptability of intervention activities was also mentioned by three interventions as a facilitating factor to scale-up. PRACHAR and Ishraq both noted that the ability to adapt activities, either to better address community needs or to simplify processes, facilitated scale-up [
      Georgetown University's Institute for Reproductive Health
      The Gender Roles, Equality and Transformations (GREAT) project: From pilot to scale.
      ,
      • Renju J.R.
      • Andrew B.
      • Medard L.
      • et al.
      Scaling up adolescent sexual and reproductive health interventions through existing government systems? A detailed process evaluation of a school-based intervention in Mwanza region in the northwest of Tanzania.
      ].

      Partnerships for sustainability

      Partnerships with and support from community groups and government stakeholders were the most frequently mentioned facilitators of scale-up. Documentation from 10 interventions noted that community engagement and support for the AYRH interventions facilitated not only pilot implementation efforts but also the scale-up process by fostering trust and ownership among the organizations that would become user organizations in the expansion process. Tostan, for example, noted that their success in building the necessary critical mass needed for social change was achieved through capacity building of and support from the local committees through conducting village meetings during pilot implementation [
      ExpandNet Secretariat and World Health Organization
      Nine steps for developing a scaling-up strategy.
      ]. Other activities to engage community stakeholders included participatory activities to identify and address local AYRH issues, consultations with stakeholders to inform intervention design, and establishing mechanisms to receive and share data with communities about ongoing activities.
      Advocacy and partnerships with government stakeholders were also noted by implementers as a facilitator to scale-up. Documentation from nine interventions mentioned that partnerships with government ministries at local or national levels and capacity-building activities with government partners supported pilot implementation and eventual scale-up efforts. AYA, Geraçao Biz, Ishraq, and Project H either implemented through government partners from the start, or began collaborating with them early on during implementation, to integrate activities into government systems and ensure activities aligned with government strategic priorities. In turn, this built ownership of programming and intervention results before “handover” to the government. AYA in Uganda engaged policymakers and community leaders, including representatives of four Kingdoms, in all phases of intervention design. The project also partnered with the Kingdoms to implement the community-level activities, which translated into the Kingdoms adopting supportive AYRH policies in their agendas and securing funding to continue the initiatives started by the resource organization [
      • Wilder J.
      • Masilamani R.
      • Daniel E.
      Promoting change in the reproductive behavior of youth - Pathfinder International's PRACHAR project, Bihar, India.
      ].
      Notably, interventions that mentioned community or government support as a facilitator to scale-up also mentioned lack of support as a challenge to scale-up. Five of the interventions identified lack of community or government support or adaptability as a challenge. For instance, the KARHP noted that despite substantial interest from the government to adopt supportive AYRH policies, because of the complex budgeting and planning process, the resource organization still struggled to integrate activities into the government system and had to adapt activities to accommodate systems, underscoring that supportive policy environments alone do not facilitate the sustainability of intervention impact [
      • Selim M.
      • Abdel-Tawab N.
      • Elsayed K.
      • et al.
      The Ishraq Program for out-of-school girls: From pilot to scale-up.
      ].

      Monitoring and evaluation systems and data

      The monitoring and use of data was mentioned as a facilitating factor for scale-up by seven of the interventions. Notably, the interventions that identified M&E capacity as a facilitator were often interventions that demonstrated evidence of impact during the pilot phase. PRACHAR and the KARHP noted that the availability of evaluation data showing intervention impact from pilot implementation, particularly regarding the importance of the normative components, provided the evidence needed to generate buy-in from user organizations [
      • Evelia H.
      • et al.
      From pilot to program: Scaling up the Kenya adolescent reproductive health project.
      ,
      • Evelia H.
      • Wanjiru M.
      • Obare F.
      • et al.
      Ten years of the Kenya Adolescent Reproductive Health Project: What has happened?.
      ]. Several interventions faced challenges related to the M&E capacities of user organizations, which in some cases were unable to replicate the M&E systems developed by the resource organizations. For instance, Geraçao Biz found that the M&E capacity across scale-up locations was inconsistent. To address this, the intervention conducted periodic evaluations to improve the M&E system, which was designed to be adaptable and thus could easily be integrated into the systems of varying capacity [
      • Hainsworth G.
      • Zilhao I.
      • Badiana R.
      • et al.
      From inception to large scale: the Geraçao Biz Programme in Mozambique.
      ].

      Discussion

      This exploratory review of peer-reviewed and gray literature pertaining to the scale-up of normative change interventions for AYRH identified only 13 interventions that both met our definitions of normative change and scale-up and provided documentation of their scale-up efforts. The 13 interventions we analyzed used a variety of scale-up strategies across diverse contexts and time frames with different scale-up goals. As the language on scale-up and normative change varied, and the interventions were multifaceted, it was difficult to separate which components contributed specifically to normative change and to assess how normative change outcomes were evaluated. Despite these limitations, we discerned many elements common to scale-up success and several unique considerations for the scale-up of normative change interventions.
      Many of the interventions planned for scale-up during the pilot phase, citing early preparation as a critical factor in their success for later expansion and institutionalization. This preparation took many forms. Some resource organizations developed a strategic scale-up plan, while others sought to ensure community and government stakeholder buy-in through advocacy and early engagement. Many interventions incorporated measures to align intervention components with government policies, systems, or NGO platforms so that the interventions could be easily integrated into existing programs. Other organizations budgeted capacity-building activities for user organizations to independently implement the interventions over time. Unique to normative change interventions, working with staff to identify and clarify their own norms and roles as change agents was emphasized by many as a critical component to successful implementation and scale-up.
      Social norms are highly contextual. Thus, program adaptability was highlighted across the reviewed literature as a facilitator of scale-up. Interventions identified for this review were almost always adapted when scaled-up in new contexts. Guidance documents and tools, combined with capacity building of user organizations, were identified as critical supports to maintain fidelity of the core normative change components during scale-up.
      The complexity and use of M&E systems was also cited by about half of the interventions as important for guiding scale-up efforts. When scale-up involved cross-organizational monitoring, it was useful for multiple organizations to share core indicators. Often, however, monitoring systems developed for pilot implementation needed to be adapted or simplified to accommodate new contexts and organizational systems during scale-up.
      We note that the development of tools and the adaptation of systems often require significant initial investment and is likely to add to intervention timelines. Indeed, since changing social norms requires changing the beliefs of many individuals, the time frame for reaching tipping points and demonstrating effectiveness of normative change efforts is likely to require longer than the standard three- to five-year time frames of most health-focused projects. Advocacy is needed to increase awareness of these longer term resource needs, especially if normative change at scale is the ultimate goal.
      Although all but one of the interventions documented a change in the attitudes, beliefs, or behaviors of individuals in the larger community, clear measures of normative change outcomes were notably lacking from the documents reviewed. In most cases, documentation alluded to the assumption that the mechanisms of norms change were effective due to changes in health outcomes, but norms change itself was rarely evaluated. Documentation of efforts to confirm findings and assess normative change with communities was lacking as well. The articulation and measurement of social norms need to be given considerably more attention. This includes being more explicit about what norms are expected to change and about how norms change will be monitored over time during pilot implementation and under scale-up conditions. To this latter point, careful M&E is needed to ensure that the normative change mechanism inherent in norms-focused activities continues to operate at scale. Currently, for instance, it is unclear how much interventions can be adapted before effectiveness must be re-evaluated. Unfortunately, documentation of how to monitor the normative change components of AYRH interventions is sorely lacking. Simple indicators and adaptable approaches to measuring normative change at scale are needed [
      • Mackie G.
      • Moneti F.
      • Shakya H.
      • et al.
      What are social norms? How are they measured?.
      ,
      • Cislaghi B.
      • Heise L.
      Measuring gender-related social norms.
      ].
      We note the following limitations. Our review did not include information about on-going scale-up activities. The lack of a common language when referring to normative interventions or scale-up made it difficult to ascertain if challenges or facilitators were related to scale-up or to the implementation of the pilot itself. As mentioned previously, documentation of the scale-up process of normative change strategies, even among the interventions included in our review, was limited. Most of the reviewed documentation of challenges or facilitators focused on describing elements of the strength of the intervention itself and whether impact was achieved. Projects tended to provide minimal description or analysis of their scale-up experiences, and even less description of the process of scaling-up their normative change strategies specifically. Documentation regarding measurement and evaluation of normative outcomes, whether during pilot or while operating at-scale, was also lacking.

      Summary and Implications

      The ability to scale-up community-based normative change interventions is commonly questioned. However, the 13 interventions included in this review demonstrate that the scale-up of multicomponent community-based normative change interventions is feasible. They also show that the scale-up of such interventions requires planning and considerations that are distinct from those required for the scale-up of traditional behavior change approaches because they seek to influence change at both individual and community level and are highly contextual to complex social environments. The success of scaling normative change interventions is facilitated by planning for scale-up from the beginning, even before evidence of effectiveness indicates an intervention is worthy of going to scale.
      The few interventions included in this review and the scant documentation of scale-up processes highlight the need for more research and evaluation, as well as better articulation and documentation of scale-up and lessons learned. In addition, greater shared learning across the many organizations that are implementing normative change interventions is needed to improve measurement and analysis of normative change and scale-up, to ultimately ensure sustained impact of these initiatives. Building the evidence base for effective approaches for shifting social norms and creating enabling environments for behavior change at scale is crucial if the field is to meet the large and growing RH needs of adolescents. Despite the need for more evidence, the insights gleaned from this review provide an important starting point to inform future normative change programming for AYRH and have broad applicability to other health sectors.

      Acknowledgments

      The authors would like to acknowledge the technical contributions of Stephanie Oum at Save the Children for her work on the initial literature review on normative change interventions for AYRH going to scale, from which the conceptualization of this article was derived. This article was prepared as part of the Passages project.

      Funding Sources

      This article and the Passages project are made possible by the generous support of the American people through the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) under the terms of Cooperative Agreement No. AID-OAA-A-15-00042.

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