Prevalences of Stages of Change for Smoking Cessation in Adolescents and Associated Factors: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis



      To synthesize evidence on the prevalences of stages of change (Transtheoretical Model) for smoking cessation in adolescents and associated factors.


      A systematic search of Web of Science (Thomson Reuters), SCOPUS (Elsevier), MEDLINE/PubMed, CINAHL (EBSCO) and PsycINFO (APA) was conducted to identify eligible studies. Two calibrated reviewers selected studies independently, extracted data, and appraised studies. A qualitative synthesis of the findings and meta-analysis of the prevalences of the stages of change for smoking cessation were carried out. A quality effects model was used to estimate the pooled prevalences.


      Eleven studies (N = 6469 adolescents) from five middle- to high-income countries were included in the review. Precontemplators accounted for 41% of smokers in earlier stages of change (95%CI: 34%–49%). In such a group, a lowered decisional balance, the lowest self-efficacy, and highest nicotine dependence were found (p < .05).


      A higher overall prevalence of adolescents in precontemplation stage for smoking cessation was observed. Such group displayed more unfavorable smoking-related behaviors and characteristics than adolescents in other stages. The evidence is limited due to the lack of studies in adolescents living in low-income countries.



      TTM (Transtheoretical Model), PC (Precontemplation), C (Contemplation), P (Preparation), A (Action), M (Maintenance.)
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