Advertisement

Mediators of Psychological Well-being in Adolescent Boys

      Abstract

      Purpose

      The aim of this study was to explore the effect of the Active Teen Leaders Avoiding Screen-time (ATLAS) intervention on psychological well-being in adolescent boys and to examine the potential mediating mechanisms that might explain this effect.

      Methods

      ATLAS was evaluated using a cluster randomized controlled trial in 14 secondary schools located in low-income communities (N = 361 adolescent boys, mean age = 12.7 ± .5 years). The 20-week intervention was guided by self-determination theory and involved: professional development for teachers, provision of fitness equipment to schools, enhanced school sport sessions, researcher-led seminars, a smartphone application, and parental strategies for reducing screen time. Assessments were conducted at baseline and immediately post intervention (8 months). Psychological well-being was measured using the Flourishing Scale. Motivational regulations (intrinsic, identified, introjected, controlled, and amotivation) and basic psychological needs (autonomy, competence, and relatedness) in school sport, muscular fitness, resistance training skill competency, and recreational screen time were examined as potential mediating mechanisms of the intervention effect.

      Results

      The intervention effect on well-being was small but statistically significant. Within a multiple mediator model, changes in autonomy needs satisfaction, recreational screen time, and muscular fitness significantly mediated the effect of the intervention on psychological well-being.

      Conclusions

      In addition to the physical health benefits, targeted physical activity programs for adolescent boys may have utility for mental health promotion through the mechanisms of increasing autonomy support and muscular fitness and reducing screen time.

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Journal of Adolescent Health
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • World Health Organization
        Promoting mental Health: Concepts, emerging evidence, Practice: A report of the World health Organization, department of mental health and Substance Abuse in collaboration with the Victorian health promotion foundation and the University of Melbourne.
        World Health Organization, Geneva2005
        • Ryff C.D.
        • Singer B.
        The contours of positive human health.
        Psychol Inq. 1998; 9: 1-28
        • Huppert F.A.
        • So T.T.
        Flourishing across Europe: Application of a new conceptual framework for defining well-being.
        Soc Indic Res. 2013; 110: 837-861
        • Deci E.
        • Ryan R.
        Handbook of self-determination research.
        University of Rochester Press, Rochester, New York2002
        • Chida Y.
        • Steptoe A.
        Positive psychological well-being and mortality: A quantitative review of prospective observational studies.
        Psychosom Med. 2008; 70: 741-756
        • Huppert F.A.
        Psychological well-being: Evidence regarding its causes and consequences.
        Appl Psychol Health Well-being. 2009; 1: 137-164
        • Costigan S.
        • Barnett L.M.
        • Plotnikoff R.C.
        • Lubans D.R.
        The health indicators associated with screen-based sedentary behavior in adolescent girls: A systematic review.
        J Adolesc Health. 2013; 52: 382-392
        • Lacy K.E.
        • Allender S.E.
        • Kremer P.J.
        • et al.
        Screen time and physical activity behaviours are associated with health-related quality of life in Australian adolescents.
        Qual Life Res. 2012; 21: 1085-1099
        • Lubans D.R.
        • Cliff D.P.
        Muscular fitness, body composition and physical self-perception in adolescents.
        J Sci Med Sport. 2011; 14: 216-221
        • Ortega F.B.
        • Silventoinen K.
        • Tynelius P.
        • Rasmussen F.
        Muscular strength in male adolescents and premature death: Cohort study of one million participants.
        Br Med J. 2012; 345: e7279
        • Gray J.J.
        • Ginsberg R.L.
        Muscle dissatisfaction: An overview of psychological and cultural research and theory.
        in: Thompson J.K. Cafri G. Muscular Ideal: Psychological Social, and Medical Perspectives. APA, Washington, DC2007: 15-39
        • Page A.S.
        • Cooper A.R.
        • Griew P.
        • Jago R.
        Children's screen viewing is related to psychological difficulties irrespective of physical activity.
        Pediatr Rev. 2010; 126: e1011-e1017
        • Rachele J.N.
        • Cuddihy T.F.
        • Washington T.L.
        • McPhail S.M.
        The association between adolescent self-reported physical activity and wellness: The missing piece for youth wellness programs.
        J Adolesc Health. 2014; 55: 281-286
        • Cerin E.
        Ways of unraveling how and why physical activity influences mental health through statistical mediation analyses.
        Ment Health Phys Activity. 2010; 3: 51-60
        • Morley B.
        • Scully M.
        • Niven P.
        • et al.
        Prevalence and socio-demographic distribution of eating, physical activity and sedentary behaviours among Australian adolescents.
        Health Promot J Austr. 2012; 23: 213-218
        • Hardy L.L.
        • King L.
        • Espinel P.
        • et al.
        NSW schools physical activity and nutrition survey (SPANS) 2010: Full report.
        NSW Ministry of Health, Sydney2010
        • Smith J.J.
        • et al.
        Rationale and study protocol for the ‘Active Teen Leaders Avoiding Screen-time’ (ATLAS) group randomized controlled trial: An obesity prevention intervention for adolescent boys from schools in low-income communities.
        Contemp Clin Trials. 2014; 37: 106-119
        • Smith J.J.
        • Morgan P.J.
        • Plotnikoff R.C.
        • et al.
        Smart-phone obesity prevention trial for adolescent boys in low-income communities: The ATLAS RCT.
        Pediatrics. 2014; 134: e723-e731
        • World Health Organization
        Global recommendations on physical activity for health.
        WHO, Geneva2010
        • Lubans D.R.
        • Morgan P.J.
        • Aguiar E.J.
        • Callister R.
        Randomized controlled trial of the Physical Activity Leaders (PALs) program for adolescent boys from disadvantaged secondary schools.
        Prev Med. 2011; 52: 239-246
        • Fritz M.S.
        • MacKinnon D.P.
        Required sample size to detect the mediated effect.
        Psychol Sci. 2007; 18: 233-239
        • Morgan P.J.
        • Saunders K.L.
        • Lubans D.R.
        Improving physical self-perception in adolescent boys from disadvantaged schools: Psychological outcomes from the physical activity leaders randomized controlled trial.
        Pediatr Obes. 2012; 7: 27-32
        • Deci E.
        • Ryan R.
        Instrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behaviour.
        Plenum, New York, NY1985
        • Diener E.
        • Wirtz D.
        • Tov W.
        • et al.
        New well-being measures: Short scales to assess flourishing and positive and negative feelings.
        Soc Indic Res. 2010; 97: 143-156
        • Hardy L.L.
        • Booth M.L.
        • Okely A.D.
        The reliability of the adolescent sedentary activity questionnaire (ASAQ).
        Prev Med. 2007; 45: 71-74
        • Lubans D.R.
        • Morgan P.J.
        • Callister R.
        • et al.
        Test-retest reliability of a battery of field-based health-related fitness measures for adolescents.
        J Sports Sci. 2011; 29: 685-693
        • Lubans D.R.
        • Smith J.J.
        • Harries S.K.
        • et al.
        Development, test-retest reliability and construct validity of the resistance training skills battery.
        J Strength Cond Res. 2014; 28: 1373-1380
        • Goudas M.
        • Biddle S.
        • Fox K.
        Perceived locus of causality, goal orientations, and perceived competence in school physical education classes.
        Br J Of Educ Psychol. 1994; 64: 453-463
        • Ng J.Y.Y.
        • Lonsdale C.
        • Hodge K.
        The basic needs satisfaction in sport scale (BNSSS): Instrument development and initial validity evidence.
        Psychol Sport Exerc. 2011; 12: 257-264
        • Tofighi D.
        • MacKinnon D.P.
        RMediation: An R package for mediation analysis confidence intervals.
        Behav Res Methods. 2011; 43: 692-700
        • Seligman M.E.
        Flourish: A visionary new understanding of happiness and well-being.
        Simon and Schuster, New York, NY2012
        • de Leeuw J.R.J.
        • de Bruijn M.
        • de Weert-van Oene G.H.
        • Schrijvers A.J.P.
        Internet and game behaviour at a secondary school and a newly developed health promotion programme: A prospective study.
        BMC Public Health. 2010; 10: 544
        • Smith J.J.
        • Eather N.
        • Morgan P.J.
        • et al.
        The health benefits of muscular fitness for children and adolescents: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
        Sports Med. 2014; 44: 1209-1223
        • van Wijnen L.G.
        • Wendel-Vos G.C.
        • Wammes B.M.
        • Bemelmans W.J.
        The impact of school-based prevention of overweight on psychosocial well-being of children.
        Obes Rev. 2009; 10: 298-312
        • Riiser K.
        • Løndal K.
        • Ommundsen Y.
        • et al.
        The outcomes of a 12-week Internet intervention aimed at improving fitness and health-related quality of life in overweight adolescents: The Young & Active controlled trial.
        PLoS One. 2014; 9: e114732
        • Hone L.C.
        • Jarden A.
        • Schofield G.M.
        • Duncan S.
        Measuring flourishing: The impact of operational definitions on the prevalence of high levels of wellbeing.
        Int J Wellbeing. 2014; 4
        • Khodarahimi S.
        Hope and flourishing in an Iranian adults sample: Their contributions to the positive and negative emotions.
        Appl Res Qual Life. 2013; 8: 361-372