Advertisement

Trends Among U.S. High School Seniors in Recent Marijuana Use and Associations With Other Substances: 1976–2013

      Abstract

      Purpose

      The purpose of this study was to describe historical trends in rates of recent substance use and associations between marijuana and other substances, among U.S. high school seniors by race and gender.

      Methods

      Data from Monitoring the Future (1976–2013; N = 599,109) were used to estimate historical trends in alcohol use, heavy episodic drinking (HED), cigarette use, and marijuana use. We used time-varying effect models to flexibly estimate changes in associations of substance use behaviors.

      Results

      Past-month marijuana use rates peaked in the 1970s, declined through 1990, then rose again to reach levels of use of more than 20% for both black and white participants. Recent years show increasing disparities across groups such that males, and in particular black youth, are on a trajectory toward higher use. This rise in marijuana use is particularly concerning among black youth, with rates far exceeding those for cigarette use and HED. The association of marijuana use with both cigarette use and HED is particularly high in recent years among black adolescents.

      Conclusions

      Substance use recently declined among high school seniors, except for marijuana use, particularly among black youth. The increasing association between marijuana and other substances among black adolescents suggests future amplification in critical health disparities.

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Journal of Adolescent Health
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Johnston L.D.
        • O'Malley P.M.
        • Bachman J.G.
        • et al.
        Monitoring the Future national survey results on drug use, 1975–2013: Volume I, Secondary school students.
        Institute for Social Research, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor2014
        • Bolla K.I.
        • Brown K.
        • Eldreth D.
        • et al.
        Dose-related neurocognitive effects of marijuana use.
        Neurology. 2002; 59: 1337-1343
        • Lynskey M.
        • Hall W.
        The effects of adolescent cannabis use on educational attainment: A review.
        Addiction. 2000; 95: 1621-1630
        • Lynskey M.T.
        • Heath A.C.
        • Bucholz K.K.
        • et al.
        Escalation of drug use in early-onset cannabis users vs co-twin controls.
        JAMA. 2003; 289: 427-433
        • Moore B.A.
        • Augustson E.M.
        • Moser R.P.
        • Budney A.J.
        Respiratory effects of marijuana and tobacco use in a U.S. sample.
        J Gen Intern Med. 2005; 20: 33-37
        • Taylor D.R.
        • Poulton R.
        • Moffitt T.E.
        • et al.
        The respiratory effects of cannabis dependence in young adults.
        Addiction. 2000; 95: 1669-1677
        • Windle M.
        • Wiesner M.
        Trajectories of marijuana use from adolescence to young adulthood: Predictors and outcomes.
        Dev Psychopathol. 2004; 16: 1007-1027
        • Leatherdale S.T.
        • Ahmed R.
        Alcohol, marijuana, and tobacco use among Canadian youth: Do we need more multi-substance prevention programming?.
        J Prim Prev. 2010; 31: 99-108
        • Schweinsburg A.D.
        • Schweinsburg B.C.
        • Cheung E.H.
        • et al.
        fMRI response to spatial working memory in adolescents with comorbid marijuana and alcohol use disorders.
        Drug Alcohol Depend. 2005; 79: 201-210
        • Tan X.
        • Shiyko M.P.
        • Li R.
        • et al.
        A time-varying effect model for intensive longitudinal data.
        Psychol Methods. 2012; 17: 61-77
        • Bachman J.G.
        • Johnston L.D.
        • O'Malley P.M.
        Explaining the recent increases in students' marijuana use: Impacts of perceived risks and disapproval, 1976 through 1996.
        AJPH. 1998; 88: 887-892
        • Johnston L.D.
        • O'Malley P.M.
        • Bachman J.G.
        • Schulenberg J.E.
        Monitoring the future national survey results on drug use, 1975-2007: Volume I. Secondary school students (NIH Publication No. 08-6418A).
        National Institute on Drug Abuse, Bethesda, MD2008
        • Terry-McElrath Y.M.
        • O'Malley P.M.
        • Johnston L.D.
        Simultaneous alcohol and marijuana use among U.S. high school seniors from 1976 to 2011: Trends, reasons, and situations.
        Drug Alcohol Depend. 2013; 133: 71-79
        • Wallace J.M.
        • Bachman J.G.
        • O'Malley P.M.
        • et al.
        Tobacco, alcohol, and illicit drug use: Racial and ethnic differences among U.S. high school seniors, 1976-2000.
        Public Health Rep. 2002; 117: 67-75
        • Wallace J.M.
        • Bachman J.G.
        • O'Malley P.M.
        • et al.
        Gender and ethnic differences in smoking, drinking and illicit drug use among American 8th, 10th and 12th grade students, 1976-2000.
        Addiction. 2003; 98: 225-234
        • R Core Team
        R: A language and environment for statistical computing.
        R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria2013 (Available at:) (Accessed June 5, 2014)
        • Vasilenko S.A.
        • Piper M.E.
        • Lanza S.T.
        • et al.
        Time-varying processes involved in smoking lapse in a randomized trial of smoking cessation therapies.
        Nicotine Tob Res. 2014; 16: S135-S143
        • Yang J.
        • Tan X.
        • Li R.
        • Wagner A.
        TVEM (time-varying effect model) SAS macro suite users' guide (Version 2.1.0).
        University Park, The Methodology Center, Penn State2012 (Available at:) (Accessed June 5, 2014)
        • Lanza S.T.
        • Vasilenko S.
        • Liu X.
        • et al.
        Advancing the understanding of craving during smoking cessation attempts: A demonstration of the time-varying effect model.
        Nicotine Tob Res. 2014; 16: S127-S134
        • Toumbourou J.W.
        • Stockwell T.
        • Neighbors C.
        • et al.
        Interventions to reduce harm associated with adolescent substance use.
        Lancet. 2007; 369: 1391-1401
        • Miech R.A.
        • Johnston L.
        • O'Malley P.M.
        • et al.
        Trends in use of marijuana and attitudes toward marijuana among youth before and after decriminalization: The case of California 2007-2013.
        Int J Drug Policy. 2015; 26: 336-344
        • Swendsen J.
        • Burstein M.
        • Case B.
        • et al.
        Use and abuse of alcohol and illicit drugs in US adolescents: Results of the national comorbidity survey–adolescent supplement.
        Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2012; 69: 390-398
        • Swendsen J.
        • Conway K.P.
        • Degenhardt L.
        • et al.
        Socio-demographic risk factors for alcohol and drug dependence: The 10-year follow-up of the national comorbidity survey.
        Addiction. 2009; 104: 1346-1355
        • Finlay A.K.
        • White H.R.
        • Mun E.-Y.
        • et al.
        Racial differences in trajectories of heavy drinking and regular marijuana use from ages 13 to 24 among African-American and white males.
        Drug Alcohol Depend. 2012; 121: 118-123