Advertisement

Rapid Point-of-Care HIV Testing in Youth: A Systematic Review

Published:September 20, 2013DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2013.07.029

      Abstract

      Purpose

      This review examines the literature surrounding acceptability of, and preference for, rapid point-of-care (POC) human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing in youth, documents notification rates when youth were offered rapid POC testing, and identifies the sociodemographic factors associated with testing.

      Methods

      The reviewers searched the scholarly literature indexed in MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, and PsycInfo using a set of keywords related to youth and rapid POC HIV testing. A total of 14 articles were included in the review.

      Results

      Four themes were identified: (1) Youth will accept rapid POC testing, particularly if offered; (2) youth prefer rapid POC testing to traditional testing; (3) youth receive their rapid POC HIV test results; and (4) older youth and those with HIV risk factors or a concurrent genitourinary diagnosis are more likely to accept rapid POC HIV testing when it is offered.

      Conclusions

      Evidence shows that youth accept and prefer rapid POC HIV tests when offered. The routine use of rapid POC HIV tests in emergency departments and adolescent primary care clinics should be considered because of higher uptake in these environments. Youth receive their rapid POC test results more frequently and sooner than traditional test results. However, further work is needed to develop HIV testing programs that target younger adolescents.

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Journal of Adolescent Health
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

      1. HIV among youth. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/youth/pdf/youth.pdf [accessed 16.05.13].

        • HIV/AIDS Among Youth in Canada. HIV/AIDS Epi Updates-July
        Public Health Agency of Canada.
        ([accessed 10.09.13])2010
        • Center for Disease Control and Prevention
        Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance—United States.
        MMWR. 2010; 59: 1-142
      2. Facilitating HIV testing and disclosure with children and adolescents. International HIV/AIDS Alliance. http://www.aidsalliance.org/includes/Publication/HIV_Testing_and_Disclosure_with_children.pdf [accessed 16.05.13].

        • Inungu J.
        • Lewis A.
        • Mustafa Y.
        • et al.
        HIV testing among adolescents and youth in the United States: Update from the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System.
        Open AIDS J. 2011; 5: 80-85
      3. National Survey of Teens on HIV/AIDS: Public knowledge and attitudes about HIV/AIDS. Kaiser Family Foundation. http://www.kff.org/youthhivstds/3092-index.cfm [accessed 09.05.13].

        • Rotheram-Borus M.J.
        • Gillis J.R.
        • Reid H.M.
        • et al.
        HIV testing behaviors, and knowledge among adolescents at high risk.
        J Adolesc Health. 1997; 20: 216-225
        • Goodman E.
        • Berecochea J.E.
        Predictors of HIV testing among runaway and homeless adolescents.
        J Adolesc Health. 1994; 15: 566-572
        • Lloyd-Smith E.
        Syringe sharing among young drug users in Vancouver.
        Can J Infect Dis. 2007; 18 (Abstract P228)
      4. Public Health Agency of Canada. Street youth in Canada: Findings from Enhanced Surveillance of Street Youth in Canada, 1999-2003. http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/std-mts/reports_06/youth-eng.php [accessed 09.05.13].

        • Roy E.
        • Haley N.
        • Leclerc P.
        • et al.
        HIV incidence among street youth in Montreal, Canada.
        AIDS. 2003; 17: 1071-1075
      5. Results from the 2009 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Volume I. Summary of National Findings. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. http://www.samhsa.gov/data/2k9/2k9Resultsweb/web/2k9results.htm [accessed 16.05.13].

      6. HIV among youth in the US: Protecting a generation. CDC Vital Signs. http://www.cdc.gov/vitalsigns/HIVAmongYouth/index.html [accessed 16.05.13].

      7. Screening for HIV. US Preventative Services Task Force. http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf/uspshivi.htm [accessed 16.05.13].

        • Flicker S.
        • Flynn S.
        • Larkin J.
        • et al.
        Sexpress: The Toronto Teen Survey Report. Toronto, ON: Planned Parenthood Toronto.
        2009
        • Branson B.M.
        Point-of-care rapid tests for HIV antibodies.
        Laboratoriums Medizin. 2003; 27: 288-295
        • Keenan P.A.
        • Keenan J.M.
        Rapid HIV testing in urban outreach: A strategy for improving posttest counseling rates.
        AIDS Educ Prev. 2001; 13: 541-550
        • Kelen G.D.
        • Shahan J.B.
        • Quinn T.C.
        Emergency department–based HIV screening and counseling: Experience with rapid and standard serologic testing.
        Ann Emerg Med. 1999; 33: 147-155
        • Tao G.
        • Branson B.M.
        • Kassler W.J.
        • Cohen R.A.
        Rates of receiving HIV test results: Data from the U.S. National Health Interview Survey for 1994 and 1995.
        J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 1999; 22: 395-400
        • Tsu R.C.
        • Burm M.L.
        • Gilhooly J.A.
        • et al.
        Telephone vs. face-to-face notification of HIV results in high-risk youth.
        J Adolesc Health. 2002; 30: 154-160
        • Peralta L.
        • Constantine N.
        • Griffin Deeds B.
        • et al.
        Evaluation of youth preferences for rapid and innovative human immunodeficiency virus antibody tests.
        Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2001; 155: 838-843
        • World Health Organization/Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS
        The importance of simple/rapid assays in HIV testing.
        Wkly Epidemiol Rec. 1998; 42: 321-328
        • Public Health Agency of Canada
        Point-of-care HIV testing using rapid HIV test kits: Guidance for health-care professionals.
        Can Commun Dis Rep. 2007; 33: 1-22
        • Pilcher C.D.
        • Christopoulos K.A.
        • Golden M.
        Public health rationale for rapid nucleic acid or p24 antigen tests for HIV.
        J Infect Dis. 2010; 201: S7-S15
        • Branson B.M.
        Point-of-care rapid tests for HIV antibody.
        J Lab Med. 2003; 27: 288-295
      8. Higgins JPT, Green S, editors. Cochrane handbook for systematic reviews of interventions, version 5.1.0. http://www.cochrane-handbook.org [accessed 16.05.13].

        • Moher D.
        • Liberati A.
        • Tetzlaff J.
        • et al.
        Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses: The PRISMA statement.
        Ann Intern Med. 2009; 151: 264-269
        • Batey D.S.
        • Hogan V.L.
        • Cantor R.
        • et al.
        Routine HIV testing in the emergency department: Assessment of patient perceptions.
        AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2012; 28: 352-356
        • Castel A.D.
        • Magnus M.
        • Peterson J.
        • et al.
        Implementing a novel citywide rapid HIV testing campaign in Washington, DC: Findings and lessons learned.
        Public Health Rep. 2012; 127: 422-431
        • Christopoulos K.A.
        • Kaplan B.
        • Dowdy D.
        • et al.
        Testing and linkage to care outcomes for a clinician-initiated rapid HIV testing program in an urban emergency department.
        AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2011; 25: 439-444
        • Cohall A.
        • Dini S.
        • Nye A.
        • et al.
        HIV testing preferences among young men of color who have sex with men.
        Am J Public Health. 2010; 100: 1961-1966
        • Freeman A.E.
        • Sattin R.W.
        • Miller K.M.
        • et al.
        Acceptance of rapid HIV screening in a Southeastern emergency department.
        Acad Emerg Med. 2009; 16: 1156-1164
        • Haines C.J.
        • Uwazuoke K.
        • Zussman B.
        • et al.
        Pediatric emergency department-based rapid HIV testing: Adolescent attitudes and preferences.
        Pediatr Emerg Care. 2011; 27: 13-16
        • Kowalczyk Mullins T.L.
        • Braverman P.K.
        • Dorn L.D.
        • et al.
        Adolescent preferences for human immunodeficiency virus testing methods and impact of rapid tests on receipt of results.
        J Adolesc Health. 2010; 46: 162-168
        • Kowalczyk Mullins T.L.
        • Kollar L.M.
        • Lehmann C.
        • Kahn J.A.
        Changes in human immunodeficiency virus testing rates among urban adolescents after introduction of routine and rapid testing.
        Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2010; 164: 870-874
        • Mullins T.K.
        • Braverman P.K.
        • Dorn L.D.
        • et al.
        Adolescents' agreement to test for HIV when different testing methods are offered.
        Int J STD AIDS. 2012; 23: 173-176
        • Minniear T.D.
        • Gilmore B.
        • Arnold S.R.
        • et al.
        Implementation of and barriers to routine HIV screening for adolescents.
        Pediatrics. 2009; 124: 1076-1084
        • Payne N.S.
        • Beckwith C.G.
        • Davis M.
        • et al.
        Acceptance of HIV testing among African-American college students at a historically black university in the South.
        J Natl Med Assoc. 2006; 98: 1912-1916
        • Sattin R.W.
        • Wilde J.A.
        • Freeman A.E.
        • et al.
        Rapid HIV testing in a Southeastern emergency department serving a semiurban-semirural adolescent and adult population.
        Ann Emerg Med. 2011; 58: S60-S64
        • Swenson R.R.
        • Hadley W.S.
        • Houck C.D.
        • et al.
        Who accepts a rapid HIV antibody test? The role of race/ethnicity and HIV risk behavior among community adolescents.
        J Adolesc Health. 2011; 48: 527-529