Advertisement

Character as a Predictor of Reproductive Health Outcomes for Youth: A Systematic Review

      Abstract

      To review research examining the influence of character on adolescent sexual and reproductive health (ASRH). We defined character as comprising two positive youth development constructs: prosocial norms and spirituality. We conducted a systematic review of behavioral research published from 1985 through 2007 that examined the association between two character constructs (prosocial norms and spirituality) and ASRH outcomes. We coded results as showing a protective association, risk association, or no association, and as longitudinal, or cross-sectional. We considered consistent associations from at least two longitudinal studies for a given outcome to be sufficient evidence for a protective or risk association. There is sufficient evidence to indicate that prosocial norms and spirituality can be protective factors for some ASRH outcomes including intention to have sex, early sex or ever having sex, contraceptive and condom use, frequency of sex, and pregnancy. The generalizability of findings by age, race/ethnicity, and gender was unclear. Findings suggest that some character sub-constructs are associated with a reduced likelihood of several adverse ASRH outcomes and with an increased likelihood of using contraceptives and intending to use condoms. Further research is needed to better understand mixed results and results showing some character sub-constructs, such as religious affiliation, to be associated with adverse ASRH outcomes.

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Journal of Adolescent Health
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • CDC
        Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance—United States 2007.
        Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA2008
        • CDC
        HIV/AIDS surveillance report, 2006.
        US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA2008
        • Weinstock H.
        • Berman S.
        • Cates W.
        Sexually transmitted diseases among American youth: Incidence and prevalence estimates, 2000.
        Perspect Sex Reprod Health. 2004; 36: 6-10
        • Kirby D.
        Understanding what works and what doesn't in reducing adolescent sexual risk-taking.
        Fam Plann Perspect. 2001; 33: 276-281
        • Pittman K.J.
        • Irby M.
        • Tolman J.
        Preventing problems, promoting development, encouraging engagement: Competing priorities or inseparable goals?.
        Forum for Youth Investment, Washington, DC2003
        • Catalano R.F.
        • Berglund M.L.
        • Ryan J.A.
        • et al.
        Positive youth development in the United States: Research findings on evaluations of positive youth development programs.
        Prev Treat. 2002; : 5
        • Hawkins J.D.
        • Catalano R.F.
        • Miller J.Y.
        Risk and protective factors for alcohol and other drug problems in adolescence and early adulthood: Implications for substance abuse prevention.
        Psychol Bull. 1992; 112: 64-105
        • Rew L.
        • Wong Y.J.
        A systematic review of associations among religiosity/spirituality and adolescent health attitudes and behaviors.
        J Adolesc Health. 2006; 38: 433-442
      1. Webster's New College Dictionary.
        Houghton Mifflin, Boston, MA1995
        • Kirby D.
        • Lepore G.
        • Ryan J.
        Sexual risk and protective factors. Factors affecting teen sexual behavior, pregnancy, childbearing, and sexually transmitted disease: Which are important? Which can you change?.
        The National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy, Washington, DC2005
        • House L.D.
        • Bates J.
        • Markham C.M.
        • Lesesne C.
        Competence as a predictor of sexual and reproductive health outcomes for youth: A systematic review.
        J Adolesc Health. 2010; 46: S7-S22
        • Sieving R.E.
        • Bearinger L.H.
        • Resnick M.D.
        • et al.
        Adolescent dual method use: Relevant attitudes, normative beliefs and self-efficacy.
        J Adolesc Health. 2007; 40 (e15–22): 275
        • Rostosky S.S.
        • Regnerus M.D.
        • Wright M.L.
        Coital debut: The role of religiosity and sex attitudes in the Add Health Survey.
        J Sex Res. 2003; 40: 358-367
        • Cuffee J.J.
        • Hallfors D.D.
        • Waller M.W.
        Racial and gender differences in adolescent sexual attitudes and longitudinal associations with coital debut.
        J Adolesc Health. 2007; 41: 19-26
        • Bruckner H.
        • Martin A.
        • Bearman P.S.
        Ambivalence and pregnancy: Adolescents' attitudes contraceptive use and pregnancy.
        Perspect Sex Reprod Health. 2004; 36: 248-257
        • Crosby R.
        • Leichliter J.S.
        • Brackbill R.
        Longitudinal prediction of sexually transmitted diseases among adolescents: Results from a national survey.
        Am J Prev Med. 2000; 18: 312-317
        • Jaccard J.
        • Dittus P.J.
        Adolescent perceptions of maternal approval of birth control and sexual risk behavior.
        Am J Public Health. 2000; 90: 1426-1430
        • Jaccard J.
        • Dodge T.
        • Dittus P.
        Do adolescents want to avoid pregnancy? Attitudes toward pregnancy as predictors of pregnancy.
        J Adolesc Health. 2003; 33: 79-83
        • Dittus P.
        • Jaccard J.
        Adolescents' perceptions of maternal disapproval of sex: Relationship to sexual outcomes.
        J Adolesc Health. 2000; 26: 268-278
        • Dodge T.
        • Jaccard J.
        Participation in athletics and female sexual risk behavior: The evaluation of four casual structures.
        J Adolesc Res. 2002; 17: 42-67
        • McNeely C.
        • Shew M.L.
        • Beuhring T.
        • et al.
        Mothers' influence on the timing of first sex among 14- and 15-year-olds.
        J Adolesc Health. 2002; 31: 256-265
        • Meier A.M.
        Adolescents' transition to first intercourse, religiosity and attitudes about sex.
        Soc Forces. 2003; 81: 1031-1052
        • Miller B.C.
        • Norton M.C.
        • Curtis T.
        • et al.
        The timing of sexual intercourse among adolescents: Family, peer, and other antecedents.
        Youth Soc. 1997; 29: 54-83
        • Baumer E.P.
        • South S.J.
        Community effects on youth sexual activity.
        J Marriage Fam. 2001; 63: 540-554
        • O'Sullivan L.F.
        • Brooks-Gunn J.
        The timing of changes in girls' sexual cognitions and behaviors in early adolescence: A prospective, cohort study.
        J Adolesc Health. 2005; 37: 211-219
        • Whitbeck L.B.
        • Yoder K.A.
        • Hoyt D.R.
        • et al.
        Early adolescent sexual activity: A developmental study.
        J Marriage Fam. 1999; 61: 934-946
        • O'Donnell L.
        • Myint U.A.
        • O'Donnell C.R.
        • et al.
        Long-term influence of sexual norms and attitudes on timing of sexual initiation among urban minority youth.
        J Sch Health. 2003; 73: 68-75
        • Blinn-Pike L.
        • Berger T.J.
        • Hewett J.
        • et al.
        Sexually abstinent adolescents: An 18-month follow-up.
        J Adolesc Res. 2004; 19: 495-511
        • Santelli J.S.
        • Kaiser J.
        • Hirsch L.
        • et al.
        Initiation of sexual intercourse among middle school adolescents: The influence of psychosocial factors.
        J Adolesc Health. 2004; 34: 200-208
        • Martino S.C.
        • Collins R.L.
        • Elliott M.N.
        • et al.
        Exposure to degrading versus nondegrading music lyrics and sexual behavior among youth.
        Pediatrics. 2006; 118: e430-e441
        • Taris T.W.
        • Semin G.R.
        Parent-child interaction during adolescence, and the adolescent's sexual experience: Control, closeness and conflict.
        J Youth Adolesc. 1997; 26: 373-398
        • Day R.D.
        The transition to first intercourse among racially and culturally diverse youth.
        J Marriage Fam. 1992; 54: 749-762
        • Forste R.
        • Haas D.W.
        The transition of adolescent males to first sexual intercourse: Anticipated or delayed?.
        Perspect Sex Reprod Health. 2002; 34: 184-190
        • Benda B.
        • Corwyn R.F.
        Developmental differences in theories of sexual behavior among rural adolescents residing in AFDC families.
        Deviant Behav. 1999; 20: 359-385
        • Donnelly J.
        • Goldfarb E.
        • Duncan D.F.
        • et al.
        Self-esteem and sex attitudes as predictors of sexual abstinence by inner-city early adolescents.
        N Am J Psychol. 1999; 1: 205-212
        • Fingerson L.
        Do mothers' opinions matter in teens' sexual activity?.
        J Fam Issues. 2005; 26: 947-974
        • DiIorio C.
        • Dudley W.N.
        • Soet J.E.
        • et al.
        Sexual possibility situations and sexual behaviors among young adolescents: The moderating role of protective factors.
        J Adolesc Health. 2004; 35 (e11–20): 528
        • Bersamin M.M.
        • Walker S.
        • Fisher D.A.
        • et al.
        Correlates of oral sex and vaginal intercourse in early and middle adolescence.
        J Res Adolesc. 2006; 16: 59-68
        • DiIorio C.
        • Dudley W.N.
        • Kelly M.
        • et al.
        Social cognitive correlates of sexual experience and condom use among 13- through 15-year-old adolescents.
        J Adolesc Health. 2001; 29: 208-216
        • Holmbeck G.N.
        • Crossman R.E.
        • Wandrei M.L.
        • et al.
        Cognitive development, egocentrism, self-esteem, and adolescent contraceptive knowledge, attitudes, and behavior.
        J Youth Adolesc. 1994; 23: 169-193
        • Jemmott L.S.
        • Jemmott J.B.
        Sexual knowledge, attitudes, and risky sexual behavior among inner-city black male adolescents.
        J Adolesc Res. 1990; 5: 346-369
        • Jimenez J.
        • Potts M.K.
        • Jimenez D.R.
        Reproductive attitudes and behavior among Latina adolescents.
        J Ethnic Cult Divers Soc Work. 2002; 11: 221-249
        • Lackey J.F.
        • Moberg D.P.
        Understanding the onset of intercourse among urban American adolescents: A cultural process framework using qualitative and quantitative data.
        Hum Organ. 1998; 57: 491-501
        • Lauritsen J.L.
        Explaining race and gender differences in adolescent sexual behavior.
        Soc Forces. 1994; 72: 859-883
        • Loewenstein G.
        • Furstenberg F.F.
        Is teenage sexual behavior rational?.
        J Appl Soc Psychol. 1991; 21: 957-986
        • Miller B.C.
        • Christensen R.B.
        • Olson T.D.
        Adolescent self-esteem in relation to sexual attitudes and behavior.
        Youth Soc. 1987; 19: 93-111
        • Bersamin M.M.
        • Walker S.
        • Waiters E.D.
        • et al.
        Promising to wait: Virginity pledges and adolescent sexual behavior.
        J Adolesc Health. 2005; 36: 428-436
        • East P.L.
        The younger sisters of childbearing adolescents: Their attitudes, expectations, and behaviors.
        Child Dev. 1996; 67: 267-282
        • Robinson K.L.
        • Price J.H.
        • Thompson C.L.
        • et al.
        Rural junior high school students' risk factors for and perceptions of teen-age parenthood.
        J Sch Health. 1998; 68: 334-338
        • Ku L.
        • Sonenstein F.L.
        • Lindberg L.D.
        • et al.
        Understanding changes in sexual activity among young metropolitan men: 1979–1995.
        Fam Plann Perspect. 1998; 30: 256-262
        • Villarruel A.M.
        • Jemmott J.B.
        • Jemmott L.S.
        • et al.
        Predictors of sexual intercourse and condom use intentions among Spanish-dominant Latino youth.
        Nurs Res. 2004; 53: 172-181
        • Benda B.
        • Corwyn R.F.
        Testing theoretical elements as predictors of sexual behavior by race among rural adolescents residing in AFDC families.
        Soc Work Res. 1998; 22: 75-88
        • Carvajal S.C.
        • Parcel G.S.
        • Basen-Engquist K.
        • et al.
        Psychosocial predictors of delay of first sexual intercourse by adolescents.
        Health Psychol. 1999; 18: 443-452
        • Dittus P.J.
        • Jaccard J.
        • Gordon V.V.
        Direct and nondirect communication of maternal beliefs to adolescents: Adolescent motivations for premarital sexual activity.
        J Appl Soc Psychol. 1999; 29: 1927-1963
        • Zabin L.S.
        • Astone N.M.
        • Emerson M.R.
        Do adolescents want babies? The relationship between attitudes and behavior.
        J Res Adolesc. 1993; 3: 67-86
        • Marsiglio W.
        Adolescent males' orientation toward paternity and contraception.
        Fam Plann Perspect. 1993; 25: 22-31
        • Bryan A.
        • Rocheleau C.A.
        • Robbins R.N.
        • et al.
        Condom use among high-risk adolescents: Testing the influence of alcohol use on the relationship of cognitive correlates of behavior.
        Health Psychol. 2005; 24: 133-142
        • Murphy J.J.
        • Boggess S.
        Increased condom use among teenage males, 1988-1995: The role of attitudes.
        Fam Plann Perspect. 1998; 30 (303): 276-280
        • Pleck J.H.
        • Sonenstein F.L.
        • Ku L.
        Masculinity ideology: Its impact on adolescent males' heterosexual relationships.
        J Soc Issues. 1993; 49: 11-29
        • Crosby R.
        • Salazar L.F.
        • Diclemente R.J.
        Lack of recent condom use among detained adolescent males: A multilevel investigation.
        Sex Transm Infect. 2004; 80: 425-429
        • Greene K.
        • Hale J.L.
        • Rubin D.L.
        A test of the theory of reasoned action in the context of condom use and AIDS.
        Commun Rep. 1997; 10: 21-33
        • Shafii T.
        • Stovel K.
        • Davis R.
        • et al.
        Is condom use habit forming? Condom use at sexual debut and subsequent condom use.
        Sex Transm Dis. 2004; 31: 366-372
        • Basen-Engquist K.
        • Parcel G.S.
        Attitudes, norms, and self-efficacy: A model of adolescents' HIV-related sexual risk behavior.
        Health Educ Behav. 1992; 19: 263-277
        • Laraque D.
        • McLean D.E.
        • Brown-Peterside P.
        • et al.
        Predictors of reported condom use in central Harlem youth as conceptualized by the health belief model.
        J Adolesc Health. 1997; 21: 318-327
        • Levin M.L.
        • Robertson A.A.
        Being prepared: Attitudes and practices related to condom carrying among minority adolescents.
        J HIV/AIDS Prev Educ Adolesc Child. 2002; 5: 103-121
        • Orr D.P.
        • Langefeld C.D.
        • Katz B.P.
        • et al.
        Factors associated with condom use among sexually active female adolescents.
        J Pediatr. 1992; 120: 311-317
        • Pleck J.H.
        • Sonenstein F.L.
        • Ku L.C.
        Changes in adolescent males' use of and attitudes toward condoms, 1988-1991.
        Fam Plann Perspect. 1993; 25 (117): 106-110
        • Noar S.M.
        • Morokoff P.J.
        • Redding C.A.
        An examination of transtheoretical predictors of condom use in late-adolescent heterosexual men.
        J Appl Biobehav Res. 2001; 6: 1-26
        • Hingson R.W.
        • Strunin L.
        • Berlin B.M.
        • et al.
        Beliefs about AIDS, use of alcohol and drugs, and unprotected sex among Massachusetts adolescents.
        Am J Public Health. 1990; 80: 295-299
        • Kingree J.B.
        • Betz H.
        Risky sexual behavior in relation to marijuana and alcohol use among African-American, male adolescent detainees and their female partners.
        Drug Alcohol Depend. 2003; 72: 197-203
        • Kingree J.B.
        • Braithwaite R.
        • Woodring T.
        Unprotected sex as a function of alcohol and marijuana use among adolescent detainees.
        J Adolesc Health. 2000; 27: 179-185
        • Lindberg L.D.
        • Ku L.
        • Sonenstein F.L.
        Adolescent males' combined use of condoms with partners' use of female contraceptive methods.
        Matern and Child Health J. 1998; 2: 201-209
        • Pendergrast Jr., R.A.
        • DuRant R.H.
        • Gaillard G.L.
        Attitudinal and behavioral correlates of condom use in urban adolescent males.
        J Adolesc Health. 1992; 13: 133-139
        • Pleck J.H.
        • Sonenstein F.L.
        • Ku L.
        Adolescent males' condom use: Relationships between perceived cost-benefits and consistency.
        J Marriage Fam. 1991; 53: 733-745
        • Reitman D.
        • St Lawrence J.S.
        • Jefferson K.W.
        • et al.
        Predictors of African American adolescents' condom use and HIV risk behavior.
        AIDS Educ Prev. 1996; 8: 499-515
        • Magura S.
        • Shapiro J.L.
        • Kang S.Y.
        Condom use among criminally-involved adolescents.
        AIDS Care. 1994; 6: 595-603
        • Serovich J.M.
        • Greene K.
        Predictors of adolescent sexual risk taking behaviors which put them at risk for contracting HIV.
        J Youth Adolesc. 1997; 26: 429-443
        • Rosenthal S.L.
        • Biro F.M.
        • Succop P.A.
        • et al.
        Impact of demographics, sexual history, and psychological functioning on the acquisition of STDS in adolescents.
        Adolescence. 1997; 32: 757-769
        • Bunnell R.E.
        • Dahlberg L.
        • Rolfs R.
        • et al.
        High prevalence and incidence of sexually transmitted diseases in urban adolescent females despite moderate risk behaviors.
        J Infect Dis. 1999; 180: 1624-1631
        • Hein K.
        • Dell R.
        • Futterman D.
        • et al.
        Comparison of HIV+ and HIV- adolescents: Risk factors and psychosocial determinants.
        Pediatrics. 1995; 95: 96-104
        • Miller B.C.
        • Norton M.C.
        • Fan X.
        • et al.
        Pubertal development, parental communication, and sexual values in relation to adolescent sexual behaviors.
        J Early Adolesc. 1998; 18: 27-52
        • Treboux D.
        • Busch-Rossnagel N.A.
        Age differences in parent and peer influences on female sexual behavior.
        J Res Adolesc. 1995; 5: 469-487
        • Treboux D.
        • Busch-Rossnagel N.A.
        Social network influences on adolescent sexual attitudes and behaviors.
        J Adolesc Res. 1990; 5: 175-189
        • Christopher F.S.
        • Johnson D.C.
        • Roosa M.W.
        Family, individual, and social correlates of early Hispanic adolescent sexual expression.
        J Sex Res. 1993; 30: 54-61
        • Hanson S.L.
        • Myers D.E.
        • Ginsburg A.L.
        The role of responsibility and knowledge in reducing teenage out-of-wedlock childbearing.
        J Marriage Fam. 1987; 49: 241-256
        • Zabin L.S.
        • Sedivy V.
        • Emerson M.R.
        Subsequent risk of childbearing among adolescents with a negative pregnancy test.
        Fam Plann Perspect. 1994; 28: 212-217
        • Holden G.W.
        • Nelson P.B.
        • Velasquez J.
        • et al.
        Cognitive, psychosocial, and reported sexual behavior differences between pregnant and nonpregnant adolescents.
        Adolescence. 1993; 28: 557-572
        • Adolph C.
        • Ramos D.E.
        • Linton K.L.
        • et al.
        Pregnancy among Hispanic teenagers: Is good parental communication a deterrent?.
        Contraception. 1995; 51: 303-306
        • Sieverding J.A.
        • Adler N.
        • Witt S.
        • et al.
        The influence of parental monitoring on adolescent sexual initiation.
        Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2005; 159: 724-729
        • Collazo A.A.
        Theory-based predictors of intention to engage in precautionary sexual behavior among Puerto Rican high school adolescents.
        J HIV/AIDS Prev Child Youth. 2004; 6: 91-120
        • Krahe B.
        • Reiss C.
        Predicting intentions of AIDS-preventive behavior among adolescents.
        J Appl Soc Psychol. 1995; 25: 2118-2140
        • Pleck J.H.
        • Sonenstein F.L.
        • Ku L.C.
        Contraceptive attitudes and intention to use condoms in sexually experienced and inexperienced adolescent males.
        J Fam Issues. 1990; 11: 294-312
        • Stanton B.
        • Li X.
        • Black M.
        • et al.
        Sexual practices and intentions among preadolescent and early adolescent low-income urban African-Americans.
        Pediatrics. 1994; 93: 966-973
        • Costa F.M.
        • Jessor R.
        • Fortenberry J.D.
        • et al.
        Psychosocial conventionality, health orientation, and contraceptive use in adolescence.
        J Adolesc Health. 1996; 18: 404-416
        • Evans A.E.
        • Sanderson M.
        • Griffin S.F.
        • et al.
        An exploration of the relationship between youth assets and engagement in risky sexual behaviors.
        J Adolesc Health. 2004; 35 (e21–30): 424
        • Stanton B.
        • Li X.
        • Pack R.
        • et al.
        Longitudinal influence of perceptions of peer and parental factors on African American adolescent risk involvement.
        J Urban Health. 2002; 79: 536-548
        • Cleveland H.H.
        The influence of female and male risk on the occurrence of sexual intercourse within adolescent relationships.
        J Res Adolesc. 2003; 13: 81-112
        • Collins R.L.
        • Elliott M.N.
        • Berry S.H.
        • et al.
        Watching sex on television predicts adolescent initiation of sexual behavior.
        Pediatrics. 2004; 114: e280-e289
        • East P.L.
        • Felice M.E.
        • Morgan M.C.
        Sisters' and girlfriends' sexual and childbearing behavior: Effects on early adolescent girls' sexual outcomes.
        J Marriage Fam. 1993; 55: 953-963
        • Halpern C.T.
        • Joyner K.
        • Udry J.R.
        • et al.
        Smart teens don't have sex (or kiss much either).
        J Adolesc Health. 2000; 26: 213-225
        • Jaccard J.
        • Dittus P.J.
        • Gordon V.V.
        Maternal correlates of adolescent sexual and contraceptive behavior.
        Fam Plann Perspect. 1996; 28 (185): 159-165
        • Lock S.E.
        • Vincent M.L.
        Sexual decision-making among rural adolescent females.
        Health Values: J Health Behav Educ Promot. 1995; 19: 47-58
        • Marin B.V.
        • Coyle K.K.
        • Gomez C.A.
        • et al.
        Older boyfriends and girlfriends increase risk of sexual initiation in young adolescents.
        J Adolesc Health. 2000; 27: 409-418
        • Rai A.A.
        • Stanton B.
        • Wu Y.
        • et al.
        Relative influences of perceived parental monitoring and perceived peer involvement on adolescent risk behaviors: An analysis of six cross-sectional data sets.
        J Adolesc Health. 2003; 33: 108-118
        • Small S.A.
        • Luster T.
        Adolescent sexual activity: An ecological, risk-factor approach.
        J Marriage Fam. 1994; 56: 181-192
        • Furstenberg F.F.
        • Morgan S.P.
        • Moore K.A.
        • et al.
        Race differences in the timing of adolescent intercourse.
        Am Sociol Rev. 1987; 52: 511-518
        • Maguen S.
        • Armistead L.
        Abstinence among female adolescents: Do parents matter above and beyond the influence of peers?.
        Am J Orthopsychiatry. 2006; 76: 260-264
        • Benda B.
        • Corwyn R.F.
        Abstinence and birth control among rural adolescents in impoverished families: A test of theoretical discriminators.
        Child Adolesc Soc Work J. 1999; 16: 191-214
        • Dittus P.J.
        • Jaccard J.
        • Gordon V.V.
        The impact of African American fathers on adolescent sexual behavior.
        J Youth Adolesc. 1997; 26: 445-465
        • Baker S.A.
        • Thalberg S.P.
        • Morrison D.M.
        Parents' behavioral norms as predictors of adolescent sexual activity and contraceptive use.
        Adolescence. 1988; 23: 265-282
        • Fasula A.M.
        • Miller K.S.
        African-American and Hispanic adolescents' intentions to delay first intercourse: Parental communication as a buffer for sexually active peers.
        J Adolesc Health. 2006; 38: 193-200
        • Hampton M.R.
        • Jeffery B.
        • McWatters B.
        • et al.
        Influence of teens' perceptions of parental disapproval and peer behaviour on their initiation of sexual intercourse.
        Can J Hum Sex. 2005; 14: 105-121
        • Nahom D.
        • Wells E.
        • Gillmore M.R.
        • et al.
        Differences by gender and sexual experience in adolescent sexual behavior: Implications for education and HIV prevention.
        J Sch Health. 2001; 71: 153-158
        • Romer D.
        • Black M.
        • Ricardo I.
        • et al.
        Social influences on the sexual behavior of youth at risk for HIV exposure.
        Am J Public Health. 1994; 84: 977-985
        • Whitaker D.J.
        • Miller K.S.
        Parent-adolescent discussions about sex and condoms: Impact on peer influences of sexual risk behavior.
        J Adolesc Res. 2000; 15: 251-273
        • Robinson K.L.
        • Telljohann S.K.
        • Price J.H.
        Predictors of sixth graders engaging in sexual intercourse.
        J Sch Health. 1999; 69: 369-375
        • Stack S.
        The effect of geographic mobility on premarital sex.
        J Marriage Fam. 1994; 56: 204-208
        • Teitler J.
        • Weiss C.
        Effects of neighborhood and school environments on transitions to first sexual intercourse.
        Sociol Educ. 2000; 73: 112-132
        • Widmer E.D.
        Influence of older siblings on initiation of sexual intercourse.
        J Marriage Fam. 1997; 59: 928-938
        • Chewning B.
        • Douglas J.
        • Kokotailo P.K.
        • et al.
        Protective factors associated with American Indian adolescents' safer sexual patterns.
        Matern and Child Health J. 2001; 5: 273-280
        • Kinsman S.B.
        • Romer D.
        • Furstenberg F.F.
        • et al.
        Early sexual initiation: The role of peer norms.
        Pediatrics. 1998; 102: 1185-1192
        • Davis E.C.
        • Friel L.V.
        Disentangling the effects of family structure and family content.
        J Marriage Fam. 2001; 63: 669-681
        • Miller K.S.
        • Forehand R.
        • Kotchick B.A.
        Adolescent sexual behavior in two ethnic minority groups: A multisystem perspective.
        Adolescence. 2000; 35: 313-333
        • Kalagian W.
        • Delmore T.
        • Loewen I.
        • et al.
        Adolescent oral contraceptive use: Factors predicting compliance at 3 and 12 months.
        Can J Hum Sex. 1998; 7: 1-8
        • Longmore M.A.
        • Manning W.D.
        • Giordano P.C.
        • et al.
        Contraceptive self-efficacy: Does it influence adolescents' contraceptive use?.
        J Health Soc Behav. 2003; 44: 45-60
        • Crosby R.A.
        • DiClemente R.J.
        • Wingood G.M.
        • et al.
        Identification of strategies for promoting condom use: A prospective analysis of high-risk African American female teens.
        Prev Sci. 2003; 4: 263-270
        • DiClemente R.J.
        • Lodico M.
        • Grinstead O.A.
        • et al.
        African-American adolescents residing in high-risk urban environments do use condoms: Correlates and predictors of condom use among adolescents in public housing developments.
        Pediatrics. 1996; 98: 269-278
        • Ellen J.M.
        • Adler N.
        • Gurvey J.E.
        • et al.
        Adolescent condom use and perceptions of risk for sexually transmitted diseases: A prospective study.
        Sex Transm Dis. 2002; 29: 756-762
        • DiClemente R.J.
        Predictors of HIV-preventive sexual behavior in a high-risk adolescent population: The influence of perceived peer norms and sexual communication on incarcerated adolescents' consistent use of condoms.
        J Adolesc Health. 1991; 12: 385-390
        • Lescano C.M.
        • Vazquez E.A.
        • Brown L.K.
        • et al.
        Condom use with “casual” and “main” partners: What's in a name?.
        J Adolesc Health. 2006; 39 (e1–7): 443
        • Boyer C.B.
        • Tschann J.M.
        • Shafer M.
        Predictors of risk for sexually transmitted diseases in ninth grade urban high-school students.
        J Adolesc Res. 1999; 14: 448-465
        • Barthlow D.J.
        • Horan P.F.
        • DiClemente R.J.
        • et al.
        Correlates of condom use among incarcerated adolescents in a rural state.
        Crim Justice Behav. 1995; 22: 295-306
        • Murphy D.A.
        • Rotheram-Borus M.J.
        • Reid H.M.
        Adolescent gender differences in HIV-related sexual risk acts, social-cognitive factors and behavioral skills.
        J Adolesc. 1998; 21: 197-208
        • Rosenthal S.L.
        • Biro F.M.
        • Succop P.A.
        • et al.
        Reasons for condom utilization among high-risk adolescent girls.
        Clin Pediatr (Phila). 1994; 33: 706-711
        • Norris A.E.
        • Ford K.
        Moderating influence of peer norms on gender differences in condom use.
        Appl Dev Sci. 1998; 2: 174-181
        • Brown L.K.
        • DiClemente R.J.
        • Park T.
        Predictors of condom use in sexually active adolescents.
        J Adolesc Health. 1992; 13: 651-657
        • St. Lawrence J.S.
        African-American adolescents' knowledge, health-related attitudes, sexual behavior, and contraceptive decisions: Implications for the prevention of adolescent HIV infection.
        J Consult Clin Psychol. 1993; 61: 104-112
        • Liebowitz S.W.
        • Castellano D.C.
        • Cuellar I.
        Factors that predict sexual behaviors among young Mexican American adolescents: An exploratory study.
        Hisp J Behav Sci. 1999; 21: 470-479
        • Crosby R.A.
        • DiClemente R.J.
        • Wingood G.M.
        • et al.
        Correlates of unprotected vaginal sex among African American female adolescents: Importance of relationship dynamics.
        Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2000; 154: 893-899
        • Kelley S.S.
        • Borawski E.A.
        • Flocke S.A.
        • et al.
        The role of sequential and concurrent sexual relationships in the risk of sexually transmitted diseases among adolescents.
        J Adolesc Health. 2003; 32: 296-305
        • Kotchick B.A.
        • Shaffer A.
        • Forehand R.
        • et al.
        Adolescent sexual risk behavior: A multi-system perspective.
        Clin Psychol Rev. 2001; 21: 493-519
        • Bachanas P.J.
        • Morris M.K.
        • Lewis-Gess J.K.
        • et al.
        Predictors of risky sexual behavior in African American adolescent girls: Implications for prevention interventions.
        J Pediatr Psychol. 2002; 27: 519-530
        • Gillmore M.R.
        • Spencer M.S.
        • White R.D.
        Repeat pregnancies among adolescent mothers.
        J Marriage Fam. 1997; 59: 536-550
        • Gillmore M.R.
        • Archibald M.E.
        • Morrison D.M.
        • et al.
        Teen sexual behavior: Applicability of the theory of reasoned action.
        J Marriage Fam. 2002; 64: 885-897
        • Basen-Engquist K.
        • Tortolero S.
        • Parcel G.S.
        HIV risk behavior and theory-based psychosocial determinants in Hispanic and Non-Hispanic white adolescents.
        J Health Educ. 1997; 28: 44-50
        • Lux K.M.
        • Petosa R.
        Using the health belief model to predict safer sex intentions of incarcerated youth.
        Health Educ Behav. 1994; 21: 487-497
        • Schaalma H.
        • Kok G.
        • Peters L.
        Determinants of consistent condom use by adolescents: The impact of experience of sexual intercourse.
        Health Educ Res. 1993; 8: 255-269
        • Bryan A.
        • Fisher J.D.
        • Fisher W.A.
        Tests of the mediational role of preparatory safer sexual behavior in the context of the theory of planned behavior.
        Health Psychol. 2002; 21: 71-80
        • Rosengard C.
        • Adler N.E.
        • Gurvey J.E.
        • et al.
        Protective role of health values in adolescents' future intentions to use condoms.
        J Adolesc Health. 2001; 29: 200-207
        • Rose A.
        • Koo H.P.
        • Bhaskar B.
        • et al.
        The influence of primary caregivers on the sexual behavior of early adolescents.
        J Adolesc Health. 2005; 37: 135-144
        • Ku L.C.
        • Sonenstein F.L.
        • Pleck J.H.
        The association of AIDS education and sex education with sexual behavior and condom use among teenage men.
        Fam Plann Perspect. 1992; 24: 100-106
        • Miller B.C.
        • Olson T.D.
        Sexual attitudes and behavior of high school students in relation to background and contextual factors.
        J Sex Res. 1988; 24: 194-200
        • Adamczyk A.
        • Felson J.
        Friends' religiosity and first sex.
        Soc Sci Res. 2006; 25: 924-947
        • Beck S.H.
        • Cole B.S.
        • Hammond J.A.
        Religious heritage and premarital sex: Evidence from a national sample of young adults.
        J Sci Stud Relig. 1991; 20: 173-180
        • Manlove J.S.
        • Terry-Humen E.
        • Ikramullah E.N.
        • et al.
        The role of parent religiosity in teens' transitions to sex and contraception.
        J Adolesc Health. 2006; 29: 578-587
        • Thorton A.
        • Camburn D.
        Religious participation and adolescent sexual behavior and attitudes.
        J Marriage Fam. 1989; 51: 641-653
        • L'Engle K.L.
        • Brown J.D.
        • Kenneavy K.
        The mass media are an important context for adolescents' sexual behavior.
        J Adolesc Health. 2006; 38: 186-192
        • Wilder E.I.
        • Watt T.T.
        Risky parental behavior and adolescent sexual activity at first coitus.
        Milbank Q. 2002; 80 (iii-iv): 481-524
        • Miller L.
        • Gur M.P.
        Religiousness and sexual responsibility in adolescent girls.
        J Adolesc Health. 2002; 31: 401-406
        • Nonnemaker J.M.
        • McNeely C.A.
        • Blum R.W.
        Public and private domains of religiosity and adolescent health risk behaviors: Evidence for the national longitudinal study of adolescent health.
        Soc Sci Med. 2003; 57: 2049-2054
        • Sheeran P.
        • Abrams D.
        • Abraham C.
        • et al.
        Religiosity and adolescent's premarital sexual attitudes and behavior. An empirical study of conceptual issues.
        Eur J Soc Psychol. 1993; 23: 39-52
        • Vesely S.A.
        • Wyatt V.H.
        The potential protective effects of youth assets from adolescent sexual risk behaviors.
        J Adolesc Health. 2004; 34: 356-365
        • Woodroof J.T.
        Premarital sexual behavior and religious adolescents.
        J Sci Stud Relig. 1985; 24: 343-366
        • Miller B.C.
        • Bingham C.R.
        Family configuration in relation to the sexual behavior of female adolescents.
        J Marriage Fam. 1989; 51: 499-506
        • DuRant R.H.
        • Sanders J.M.
        Sexual behavior and contraceptive risk taking among sexually active adolescent females.
        J Adolesc Health Care. 1989; 10: 1-9
        • Adam M.B.
        • McGuirre J.K.
        Acculturation as a predictor of the onset of sexual intercourse among Hispanic and white teens.
        Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2005; 159: 261-265
        • Ball J.
        • Armistead L.
        • Austin B.J.
        The relationship between religiosity and adjustment among African American, female, urban adolescents.
        J Adolesc. 2003; 26: 431-446
        • Billy J.O.
        • Brewster K.L.
        • Grady W.R.
        Contextual effects on the sexual behavior of adolescent women.
        J Marriage Fam. 1994; 56: 387-404
        • DuRant R.H.
        • Pendergrast R.
        • Seymore C.
        Sexual behavior among Hispanic female adolescents in the United States.
        Pediatrics. 1990; 85: 1051-1058
        • Gupta N.
        Sexual initiation and contraceptive use among adolescent women in Northeast Brazil.
        Stud Fam Plann. 2000; 31: 229-238
        • Holder D.W.
        • Durant R.H.
        • Harris T.L.
        • et al.
        The association between adolescent spirituality and voluntary sexual activity.
        J Adolesc Health. 2000; 26: 295-302
        • Lammers C.
        • Ireland M.
        • Resnick M.
        • et al.
        Influences on adolescents' decision to postpone onset of sexual intercourse: A survival analysis of virginity among youths aged 13-18 years.
        J Adolesc Health. 2000; 26: 42-48
        • Langer L.M.
        • Zimmerman R.S.
        • McNeal R.
        Explaining the association of race and ethnicity with the HIV /AIDS-related attitudes, behaviors and skills of high school students.
        Popul Res Pol Rev. 1992; 11: 233-247
        • Doss J.R.
        • Vesely S.K.
        • Oman R.F.
        • et al.
        A matched case control study: Investigating the relationship between youth assets and sexual intercourse among 13-14 year olds.
        Child Care Health Dev. 2007; 33: 40-44
        • Hellerstedt W.L.
        • Peterson-Hickey M.
        • Rhodes K.L.
        • et al.
        Environmental, social, and personal correlates of having ever had sexual intercourse among American Indian youth.
        Am J Public Health. 2006; 96: 2228-2234
        • Steinman K.J.
        • Zimmerman M.A.
        Religious activity and risk behavior among African American adolescents: Concurrent and developmental effects.
        Am J Community Psychol. 2004; 33: 151-161
        • Neumark-Sztainer D.
        • Story M.
        • French S.A.
        • et al.
        Psychosocial correlates of health compromising behaviors among adolescents.
        Health Educ Res. 1997; 12: 37-52
        • Perkins D.F.
        • Luster T.
        • Villarruel F.A.
        • et al.
        An ecological, risk-factor examination of adolescents' sexual activity in three ethnic groups.
        J Marriage Fam. 1998; 60: 660-673
        • Benda B.B.
        • Corwyn R.F.
        A test of a model with reciprocal effects between religiosity and various forms of delinquency using 2-stage least squares regression.
        J Soc Serv Res. 1997; 22: 27-52
        • Rosenbaum E.
        • Kandel D.B.
        Early onset of adolescent sexual behavior and drug involvement.
        J Marriage Fam. 1990; 52: 783-798
        • Crockett L.J.
        • Bingham C.R.
        • Chopak J.S.
        • et al.
        Timing of first sexual intercourse: The role of social control, social learning and problem behavior.
        J Youth Adolesc. 1996; 25: 89-111
        • Paul C.
        • Fitzjohn P.
        • Dickson N.
        The determinants of sexual intercourse before age 16.
        J Adolesc Health. 2000; 27: 136-147
        • Bearman P.S.
        • Bruckner H.
        Promising the future: Virginity pledges and first intercourse.
        Am J Sociol. 2001; 106: 859-912
        • Resnick M.D.
        • Bearman P.S.
        • Blum R.W.
        • et al.
        Protecting adolescents from harm: Findings from the national longitudinal study on adolescent health.
        JAMA. 1997; 278: 823-832
        • Haurin J.
        • Mott F.L.
        Adolescent sexual activity in the family context: The impact of older siblings.
        Demography. 1990; 27: 537-557
        • Mott F.L.
        The determinants of first sex by age 14 in a high-risk adolescent population.
        Fam Plann Perspect. 1996; 28: 13-18
        • Rich L.M.
        • Kim S.B.
        Employment and the sexual and reproductive behavior of female adolescents.
        Perspect Sex Reprod Health. 2002; 34: 127-134
        • Forste R.T.
        • Heaton T.B.
        Initiation of sexual activity among female adolescents.
        Youth Soc. 1988; 19: 250-268
        • Grunseit A.C.
        • Richters J.
        Age at first intercourse in an Australian national sample of technical college students.
        A N Z J Public Health. 1999; 24: 11-16
        • Hogan D.P.
        • Sun R.
        • Cornwell G.T.
        Sexual and fertility behaviors of American females aged 15-19 years: 1985, 1990, 1995.
        Am J Public Health. 2000; 90: 1421-1425
        • Jones R.K.
        • Darroch J.E.
        • Singh S.
        Religious differentials in the sexual and reproductive behaviors of young women in the United States.
        J Adolesc Health. 2005; 36: 279-288
        • McCree D.H.
        • Wingood G.M.
        • DiClemente R.
        • et al.
        Religiosity and risky sexual behavior in African American adolescent females.
        J Adolesc Health. 2003; 33: 2-8
        • Ku L.
        • Sonenstein F.L.
        • Pleck J.H.
        Factors influencing first intercourse for teenage men.
        Public Health Rep. 1993; 108: 680-694
        • Murry V.
        Black adolescent females: A comparison of early versus late coital initiators.
        Fam Relat. 1994; 43: 342-348
        • Benson M.D.
        • Torpy E.J.
        Sexual behavior in junior high school students.
        Obstet Gynecol. 1995; 85: 279-284
        • Manlove J.
        • Ryan S.
        • Franzetta K.
        Contraceptive use and consistency in U.S. teenagers' most recent sexual relationships.
        Perspect Sex Reprod Health. 2004; 36: 265-275
        • Raine T.
        • Minnis A.M.
        • Padian N.S.
        Determinants of contraceptive method among young women at risk for unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections.
        Contraception. 2003; 68: 19-25
        • Martin T.C.
        Contraceptive use patterns among Spanish single youth.
        Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care. 2005; 10: 219-228
        • Studer M.
        • Thornton A.
        Adolescent religiosity and contraceptive usage.
        J Marriage Fam. 1987; 49: 117-128
        • Reschovsky J.
        • Gerner J.
        Contraceptive choice among teenagers: A multivariate analysis.
        J Fam Econ Issues. 1991; 12: 171-194
        • DiBlasio F.A.
        • Benda B.B.
        Adolescent sexual behavior: Multivariate analysis of a social learning model.
        J Adolesc Res. 1990; 5: 449-466
        • Shapiro J.
        • Radecki S.
        • Charchian A.S.
        • et al.
        Sexual behavior and AIDS-related knowledge among community college students in Orange County, CA.
        J Community Health. 1999; 24: 29-43
        • Manlove J.
        The influence of high school dropout and school disengagement on the risk of school-age pregnancy.
        J Res Adolesc. 1998; 8: 187-220
        • Jeynes W.H.
        The effects of religious commitment on the attitudes and behaviors of teens regarding premarital childbirth.
        J Health Soc Policy. 2003; 17: 1-17
        • Lundberg S.
        • Plotnick R.D.
        Adolescent premarital childbearing: Do economic incentives matter?.
        J Labor Econ. 1995; 13: 177-200
        • Thornberry T.P.
        • Smith C.A.
        • Howard G.J.
        Risk factors for teenage fatherhood.
        J Marriage Fam. 1997; 59: 505-522
        • Plotnick R.D.
        The effects of attitudes on teenage premarital pregnancy and its resolution.
        Am Sociol Rev. 1992; 57: 800-811
        • West P.
        • Wight D.
        • Macintyre S.
        Heterosexual behaviour of 18-year-olds in the Glasgow area.
        J Adolesc. 1993; 16: 367-396
        • Bingham C.R.
        • Miller B.C.
        • Adams G.R.
        Correlates of age of first intercourse in a national sample of young women.
        J Adolesc Res. 1990; 5: 18-33
        • Hayward M.D.
        • Grady W.R.
        • Billy J.O.
        The influence of socioeconomic status on adolescent pregnancy.
        Soc Sci Q. 1992; 73: 750-772
        • Gavin L.E.
        • Catalano R.F.
        • David-Ferdon C.
        • et al.
        A review of positive youth development programs that promote adolescent sexual and reproductive health.
        J Adolesc Health. 2010; 46: S75-S91