Advertisement

Romantic Love, Hypomania, and Sleep Pattern in Adolescents

      Abstract

      Purpose

      To examine the impact of early-stage intense romantic love on sleep, daytime functioning and self-worth, adolescents in early-stage intense romantic love were compared to controls. In adolescence, falling in love is an important prerequisite for acquiring psychosocial and psychosexual skills. Early-stage intense romantic love involves physiological, cognitive, emotional, and behavioral dimensions: increased arousal, persistent thoughts for the beloved person, feelings of overwhelming joy, and efforts to sustain proximity to the person loved are prominent features of adolescents in a state of intense romantic love. The stage is comparable to a hypomanic-like state. However, no research has addressed this issue. Furthermore, no data are available with respect to sleep and sleep-related dimensions such as mood.

      Method

      One hundred seven adolescents (mean age: 17.98 years ± 1.33) took part in the study; 60 of them indicated they had recently fallen in love and experienced intense romantic love, 47 had a longer-lasting relationship or were singles. Following a screening interview for psychiatric disorders, participants completed questionnaires related to hypomania and sleep habits. Additionally, they completed a sleep log for seven consecutive nights.

      Results

      Compared to controls, adolescents in early-stage intense romantic love had increased scores on a hypomania scale, and recorded increased positive mood states in the mornings and in the evenings. These adolescents also recorded fewer hours of sleep with increased subjective sleep quality, lowered daytime sleepiness, and heightened concentration during the day.

      Conclusions

      In adolescence, early-stage intense romantic love is comparable to a hypomanic state. This state is also reflected in altered sleep patterns, mood, and daytime functioning. Consequently, to not bias data in research with adolescents, current stage of love should be taken into account.

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Journal of Adolescent Health
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Fisher E.
        Why We Love. Henry Holt and Company, New York2004
        • Hatfield E.
        • Rapson R.L.
        Passionate love, sexual desire, and mate selection: Cross-cultural and historical perspectives.
        in: Noller P. Feeney J.A. Close Relationships: Functions, Forms and Processes. Psychology Press/Taylor & Francis, Hove, England2006: 227-243
        • Jankowiak W.R.
        • Fischer E.F.
        A cross-cultural perspective on romantic love.
        Ethnology. 1992; 31: 149-155
        • Montgomery M.J.
        • Sorell G.T.
        Love and dating experience in early and middle adolescence: Grade and gender comparisons.
        J Adolesc. 1998; 21: 677-689
        • Conolly J.A.
        • Goldberg A.
        Romantic relationships in adolescence.
        in: Furman W. Brown B. Feiring C. Contemporary Perspectives on Adolescent Romantic Relationships. Cambridge University Press, New York1999: 266-290
        • Florsheim P.
        Adolescent Romantic Relations and Sexual Behaviour: Theories, Research, and Practical Implications. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, NJ2003
        • Kroger J.
        Identity Development.
        Adolescence Through Adulthood. Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, CA2000
        • Fisher E.
        Lust, attraction, and attachment in mammalian reproduction.
        Hum Nature. 1998; 9: 23-52
        • Leckman J.F.
        • Mayes L.C.
        Preoccupations and behaviours associated with romantic and parental love.
        Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am. 1999; 1: 635-665
        • Fisher E.
        • Aron A.
        • Brown L.L.
        Romantic love: An fMRI study of a neural mechanism for mate choice.
        J Comp Neurol. 2005; 493: 58-62
        • Aron A.
        • Fisher H.
        • Mashek D.J.
        • et al.
        Reward, motivation, and emotion system associated with early-stage intense romantic love.
        J Neurophysiol. 2005; 94: 327-337
        • Hatfield E.
        • Sprecher S.
        Measuring passionate love in intimate relationship.
        J Adolesc. 1986; 9: 383-410
        • American Psychiatric Association
        DSM-IV: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Psychiatric Disorders. American Psychiatric Association, Washington DC2000
        • Ackenheil M.
        • Stotz G.
        • Dietz-Bauer R.
        • et al.
        Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. München, Psychiatrische Universitätsklinik, 1999 (German version)
        • Von Zerssen D.
        Depressivitäts-Skala. Hogrefe, Göttingen1976 ([Depression scale])
        • Laux L.
        • Glanzmann P.
        • Schaffner P.
        • et al.
        State-Trait-Angstinventar. Hogrefe, Göttingen1981 ([State-trait-anxiety inventory])
        • Welsh D.P.
        • Grello C.M.
        • Harper M.S.
        When love hurts: Depression and adolescent romantic relationships.
        in: Florsheim P. Adolescent Romantic Relations and Sexual Behaviour: Theories, Research, and Practical Implications. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, NJ2003: 185-211
        • Marazziti D.
        • Canale D.
        Hormonal changes when falling in love.
        Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2004; 29: 931-936
        • Goodman W.K.
        • Price L.H.
        • Rasmussen S.A.
        • et al.
        The Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale: Development, use and reliability.
        Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1989; : 1006-1011
        • Angst J.
        • Adolfsson R.
        • Benazzi F.
        • et al.
        The HCL-32: A self-assessment tool for hypomanic symptoms in outpatients.
        J Affect Disord. 2005; 88: 217-233
        • Backhaus J.
        • Riemann D.
        Schlafstörungen bewältigen. Beltz Psychologie Verlags Union, Weinheim1996 ([Coping with sleep disorders])
        • Krampen G.
        FKK; Fragebogen zu Kompetenz- und Kontrollüberzeugungen. Hogrefe, Göttingen1991 ([Competence and control questionnaire])
        • Levenson H.
        Distinctions within the concept of internal-external control.
        Proceedings of the Annual Convention of the APA. 1972; 7: 261-262
        • Meyer T.D.
        • Hammelstein P.
        • Nilsson L.G.
        • et al.
        The HCL-32: Its factorial structure and association to indices of impairment in a German and Swedish sample.
        Compr Psychiatry. 2007; 48: 79-87
        • Porter R.
        Madness: A Brief History. Oxford University Press, Oxford2002
        • Tallis F.
        Love Sick: Love as a Mental Illness. Random/Century, London2004
        • Bartels A.
        • Zeki S.
        The neural basis of romantic love.
        Neuroreport. 2000; 11: 3829-3834
        • Mercer P.W.
        • Merrit S.L.
        • Cowell E.D.
        • et al.
        Differences in reported sleep need among adolescents.
        J Adolesc Health. 1998; 23: 259-263
        • Judge T.
        • Erez A.
        • Bono J.E.
        • et al.
        Are measures of self-esteem, neuroticism, locus of control, and generalized self-efficacy indicators of a common core construct?.
        J Pers Soc Psychol. 2002; 83: 693-710
        • LeBourgeois M.K.
        • Giannotti F.
        • Cortesi F.
        • et al.
        Sleep hygiene and sleep quality in Italian and American adolescents.
        Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2005; 1021: 352-354
        • Ohayon M.M.
        • Carskadon M.A.
        • Guilleminault C.
        • et al.
        Meta-analysis of quantitative sleep parameters from childhood to old age in healthy individuals: Developing normative sleep values across human life span.
        Sleep. 2004; 27: 1255-1273