Original article| Volume 36, ISSUE 6, P530, June 2005

Download started.


The impact on condom use of the “100% Jeune” social marketing program in Cameroon



      To measure the reach of the “100% Jeune” social marketing campaign and to assess its impact on condom use and on the predictors of condom use. The campaign aims to improve condom use through intensive youth-oriented mass media and interpersonal communications and widespread distribution of subsidized condoms.


      We analyzed data from the 2000 and 2002 waves of a reproductive health survey of youth aged 15–24 years, with sample sizes of 2097 and 3536, respectively.


      Exposure to campaign activities was high. During the course of the intervention, there were significant changes in perceived condom attributes and access, self-efficacy, and perceived social support. Consistent with these changes, the percentage of youth who used a condom in last sex with their regular partner increased from 32% to 45% for females (p < .05) and from 44% to 61% for males (p < .01). Additional analyses suggest that exposure to the “100% Jeune” campaign has contributed to these trends.


      The multi-faceted mass media and interpersonal communication campaign was effective for reaching youth. During the first 18 months of the campaign, significant changes occurred in perceived social support and condom use self-efficacy. Significant increases in levels of condom use also were achieved. However, the program was more effective among males than females. This indicates a need for more and possibly different campaign activities to focus specifically on risk perception and self-efficacy among females. The results also show that repeated program exposure is needed to achieve behavior change. Hence, future programs can enhance their effectiveness by using a mix of mass media and interpersonal communications to repeatedly expose youth to key campaign messages.


      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'


      Subscribe to Journal of Adolescent Health
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Calvès A.E.
        • Meekers D.
        Gender Differentials in Premarital Sex, Condom Use, and Abortion. Population Services International, Washington, DC1997 (PSI Research Division Working Paper No.10.)
        • Fotso M.
        • Ndonou R.
        • Libete P.R.
        • et al.
        Enquête Démographique et de Santé, Cameroun 1998.
        Macro International, Calverton, MD1999
        • Kamtchouing P.
        • Takougang I.
        • Ngoh N.
        • et al.
        La Sexualité des Adolescents en Milieu Scolaire a Yaoundé (Cameroun).
        Contracept Fertil Sex. 1997; 25: 798-801
        • Leke R.
        Commentary on unwanted pregnancy and abortion complications in Cameroon.
        Int J Gynecol Obstet. 1989; 3: 33-35
        • Mafany N.M.
        • Mati J.K.
        • Nasah B.T.
        Knowledge of and attitudes toward sexually transmitted diseases among secondary school students in Fako District, Cameroon.
        East Afr Med J. 1990; 67: 706-711
        • Meekers D.
        • Calvès A.-E.
        Gender differentials in adolescent sexual activity and reproductive health risks in Cameroon.
        Afr J Reprod Health. 1999; 3: 51-67
        • Rogo K.
        Induced abortion in sub-Saharan Africa.
        East Afr Med J. 1993; 70: 386-395
        • Mbopi F.
        • Mbu R.
        • Mauclere P.
        • et al.
        Antenatal HIV prevalence in Yaoundé, Cameroon.
        Int J STD AIDS. 1998; 9: 400-402
        UNAIDS, UNICEF, & WHO, Geneva2002
        • Akande A.
        AIDS-related beliefs and behaviours of students.
        Int J Adolesc Youth. 1994; 4: 285-303
        • Estrin D.
        In Ghana, young men’s condom use is linked to lack of barriers, perceived susceptibility of HIV infection.
        Int Fam Plan Perspect. 1999; 25: 106-111
        • Bandura A.
        Self-efficacy determinants of anticipated fears and calamity.
        J Pers Soc Psychol. 1983; 45: 464-469
        • Lahia M.
        • Ross M.
        HIV/AIDS prevention-related social skills and knowledge among adolescents in Sierra Leone, West Africa.
        Afr J Reprod Health. 1997; 1: 37-44
        • MacPhail C.
        • Campbell C.
        ’I think condoms are good but, aai, I hate those things’.
        Soc Sci Med. 2001; 52: 1613-1628
        • Wilson D.
        • Lavelle
        Psychosocial predictors of intended condom use among Zimbabwean adolescents.
        Health Educ Res. 1992; 7: 55-69
        • Abdool Karim S.
        • Abdool Karim Q.
        • Preston-Whyte E.
        • et al.
        Reasons for lack of condom use among high school students.
        S Afr Med J. 1992; 82: 107-110
        • Maswanya E.S.
        • Moji K.
        • Horiguchi I.
        • et al.
        Knowledge, risk perception of AIDS and reported sexual behaviour among students in secondary schools and colleges in Tanzania.
        Health Educ Res. 1999; 14: 185-196
        • Magnani R.J.
        • Karim A.M.
        • Weiss L.A.
        • et al.
        Reproductive health risk and protective factors among youth in Lusaka, Zambia.
        J Adolesc Health. 2002; 30: 76-86
        • Bandura A.
        Social Learning Theory.
        Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ1977
        • Janz N.K.
        • Becker M.H.
        The health belief model.
        Health Educ Q. 1984; 11: 1-47
        • Mantell J.E.
        • DiVittis A.T.
        • Auerback M.I.
        Applying theory to HIV prevention interventions.
        in: Mantell J. Auerbach M. Evaluating HIV Prevention Interventions. Plenum, New York, NY1997: 179-204
        • Rosenstock I.M.
        • Strecher V.J.
        • Becker M.H.
        Social learning theory and the health belief model.
        Health Educ Q. 1988; 15: 175-183
        • Meekers D.
        • Klein M.
        Understanding gender differences in condom use self-efficacy among youth in urban Cameroon.
        AIDS Educ Prev. 2002; 14: 62-72
        • Agha S.
        A quasi-experimental study to access the impact of four adolescent sexual health interventions in sub-Saharan Africa.
        Int Fam Plan Perspect. 2002; 28: 67-70
        • Meekers D.
        The effectiveness of targeted social marketing to promote adolescent reproductive health.
        J HIV/AIDS Prev Educ Adolesc Child. 2000; 3: 73-92
        • Van Rossem R.
        • Meekers D.
        An evaluation of the effectiveness of targeted social marketing to promote adolescent and young adult reproductive health in Cameroon.
        AIDS Educ Prev. 2000; 12: 383-404
        • Tchupo J.P.
        • Tégang S.P.
        Enquête sur la Santé Reproductive des Adolescents au Cameroon (Yaoundé et Douala), 2000.
        Population Services International and IRESCO, Washington, DC2001
        • Tchupo J.P.
        • Tégang S.P.
        Enquête sur la Santé Reproductive des Adolescents au Cameroon (Yaoundé et Douala), 2002.
        Population Services International and IRESCO, Washington, DC2002
      1. SidaCameroun. Cercle des amis du Cameroun (CERAC) [cited 2002 Oct 15]. 2002; Available from:

        • Agha S.
        Sexual activity and condom use in Lusaka, Zambia.
        Int Fam Plan Perspect. 1998; 24: 32-37
        • Agha S.
        The impact of a mass media campaign on personal risk perception, perceived self-efficacy and other behavioural predictors.
        AIDS Care. 2003; 15: 749-762
        • Agha S.
        • Karlyn A.
        • Meekers D.
        The promotion of condom use in non-regular sexual partnerships in urban Mozambique.
        Health Policy Plan. 2001; 16: 144-151
        • Parsons J.
        • Halkitis P.
        • Bimbi D.
        • et al.
        Perceptions of the benefits and costs associated with condom use and unprotected sex among late adolescent college students.
        J Adolesc. 2000; 23: 377-391
        • Garrett J.M.
        sg33.1: Enhancements for Calculation of Adjusted Means and Adjusted Proportions. StataCorp. Stata Technical Bulletin Reprints. Vol. 8. StataCorp, College Station, TX1998: 111-123
        • Lesthaeghe R.
        • Kaufmann G.
        • Meekers D.
        The nuptiality regimes in sub-Saharan Africa.
        in: Lesthaeghe R. Reproduction and Social Organization in Sub-Saharan Africa. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA1989: 238-337
        • UNICEF
        The State of the World’s Children 2002.
        UNICEF, Geneva2002
        • Magnani R.
        • Meekers D.
        • Colvin C.
        Surveying Adolescents for the Systematic Monitoring of Their Health and Development at the National/Sub-National Levels. Manuscript commissioned by UNICEF/WHO. 2002
        • Mensch B.S.
        • Hewett P.C.
        • Erulkar A.
        The Reporting of Sensitive Behavior among Adolescents.
        (XXIVth IUSSP General Conference) International Union for the Scientific Study of Population, Liege, Belgium2001
        • Turner C.
        • Miller H.
        • Rogers S.
        Survey measurement of sexual behavior.
        in: John Bancroft Researching Sexual Behavior Methodological Issues. The Kinsey Institute for Research in Sex, Gender, and Reproduction, Bloomington, IN1997: 37-60
        • Meekers D.
        • Klein M.
        Determinants of condom use among young people in urban Cameroon.
        Stud Fam Plann. 2002; 33: 335-346