Advertisement

Adolescent Reproductive Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs and Future Fatherhood

      Abstract

      Purpose

      With a growing focus on the importance of men's reproductive health, including preconception health, the ways in which young men's knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs (KAB) predict their reproductive paths are understudied. To determine if reproductive KAB predicts fatherhood status, timing and residency (living with child or not).

      Methods

      Reproductive KAB and fatherhood outcomes were analyzed from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a 20-year, nationally representative study of individuals from adolescence into adulthood. Four measures of reproductive KAB were assessed during adolescence in waves I and II. A generalized linear latent and mixed model predicted future fatherhood status (nonfather, resident/nonresident father, adolescent father) and timing while controlling for other socio-demographic variables.

      Results

      Of the 10,253 men, 3,425 were fathers (686 nonresident/2,739 resident) by wave IV. Higher risky sexual behavior scores significantly increased the odds of becoming nonresident father (odds ratio [OR], 1.30; p < .0001), resident father (OR, 1.07; p = .007), and adolescent father (OR, 1.71; p < .0001); higher pregnancy attitudes scores significantly increased the odds of becoming a nonresident father (OR, 1.20; p < .0001) and resident father (OR, 1.11; p < .0001); higher birth control self-efficacy scores significantly decreased the odds of becoming a nonresident father (OR, .72; p < .0001) and adolescent father (OR, .56; p = .01).

      Conclusions

      Young men's KAB in adolescence predicts their future fatherhood and residency status. Strategies that address adolescent males' reproductive KAB are needed in the prevention of unintended reproductive consequences such as early and nonresident fatherhood.

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Journal of Adolescent Health
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Greene M.E.
        • Biddlecom A.E.
        Absent and problematic men: Demographic accounts of male reproductive roles.
        Popul Dev Rev. 2000; 26: 81-115
        • Gavin L.
        • Moskosky S.
        • Carter M.
        • et al.
        Providing quality family planning services.
        MMWR Recomm Rep. 2014; 63: 1-54
        • Casey F.E.
        • Sonenstein F.L.
        • Astone N.M.
        • et al.
        Family planning and preconception health among men in their mid-30s developing indicators and describing need.
        Am J Mens Health. 2016; 10: 59-67
        • Saewyc E.M.
        What about the boys? The importance of including boys and young men in sexual and reproductive health research.
        J Adolesc Health. 2012; 51: 1-2
        • Brückner H.
        • Martin A.
        • Bearman P.S.
        Ambivalence and pregnancy: Adolescents' attitudes, contraceptive use and pregnancy.
        Perspect Sex Reprod Health. 2004; 36: 248-257
        • Jaccard J.
        • Dodge T.
        • Dittus P.
        Do adolescents want to avoid pregnancy? Attitudes toward pregnancy as predictors of pregnancy.
        J Adolesc Health. 2003; 33: 79-83
        • Rocca C.H.
        • Harper C.C.
        • Raine-Bennett T.R.
        Young women's perceptions of the benefits of childbearing: Associations with contraceptive use and pregnancy.
        Perspect Sex Reprod Health. 2013; 45: 23-31
        • Cummings T.
        • Auerswald C.L.
        • Ott M.A.
        Factors influencing abstinence, anticipation, and delay of sex among adolescent boys in high sexually transmitted infection prevalence communities.
        J Adolesc Health. 2014; 54: 593-598
        • Frost J.J.
        • Lindberg L.D.
        • Finer L.B.
        Young adults' contraceptive knowledge, norms and attitudes: Associations with risk of unintended pregnancy.
        Perspect Sex Reprod Health. 2012; 44: 107-116
        • Gloppen K.M.
        • David-Ferdon C.
        • Bates J.
        Confidence as a predictor of sexual and reproductive health outcomes for youth.
        J Adolesc Health. 2010; 46: S42-S58
        • Brooks-Gunn J.
        • Furstenberg Jr., F.F.
        Adolescent sexual behavior.
        Am Psychol. 1989; 44: 249-257
        • Castillo J.
        • Welch G.
        • Sarver C.
        Fathering: The relationship between fathers' residence, fathers' sociodemographic characteristics, and father involvement.
        Matern Child Health J. 2011; 15: 1342-1349
        • Sorensen E.
        • Zibman C.
        Getting to know poor fathers who do not pay child support.
        Soc Serv Rev. 2001; 75: 420-434
        • Carlson M.J.
        • McLanahan S.S.
        • Brooks-Gunn J.
        Coparenting and nonresident fathers' involvement with young children after a nonmarital birth.
        Demography. 2008; 45: 461-488
        • Cheadle J.E.
        • Amato P.R.
        • King V.
        Patterns of nonresident father contact.
        Demography. 2010; 47: 205-225
        • Adamsons K.
        • Johnson S.K.
        An updated and expanded meta-analysis of nonresident fathering and child well-being.
        J Fam Psychol. 2013; 27: 589-599
        • Marsiglio W.
        Young nonresident biological fathers.
        Marriage Fam Rev. 1994; 20: 325-348
        • Kirby D.
        • Answers E.
        Research findings on programs to reduce teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases.
        National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy, Washington, DC2007
      1. Udry JR, National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. References, instruments, and questionnaires consulted in the development of the Add Health in-home adolescent interview. Available at: http://www.cpc.unc.edu/projects/addhealth/data/guides/refer.pdf. Accessed September 10, 2015.

        • Henry D.B.
        • Deptula D.P.
        • Schoeny M.E.
        Sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancy: A longitudinal analysis of risk transmission through friends and attitudes.
        Soc Dev. 2012; 21: 195-214
        • Henry D.B.
        • Schoeny M.E.
        • Deptula D.P.
        • et al.
        Peer selection and socialization effects on adolescent intercourse without a condom and attitudes about the costs of sex.
        Child Dev. 2007; 78: 825-838
        • Rostosky S.S.
        • Regnerus M.D.
        • Wright M.L.C.
        Coital debut: The role of religiosity and sex attitudes in the Add Health Survey.
        J Sex Res. 2003; 40: 358-367
        • Ryan S.
        • Franzetta K.
        • Manlove J.
        Knowledge, perceptions, and motivations for contraception: Influence on teens' contraceptive consistency.
        Youth Soc. 2007; 39: 182-208
        • Shneyderman Y.
        • Schwartz S.J.
        Contextual and intrapersonal predictors of adolescent risky sexual behavior and outcomes.
        Health Educ Behav. 2013; 40: 400-414
        • Kao T.-S.A.
        • Manczak M.
        Family influences on adolescents' birth control and condom use, likelihood of sexually transmitted infections.
        J Sch Nurs. 2013; 29: 61-70
        • Skrondal A.
        • Rabe-Hesketh S.
        Generalized latent variable modeling: Multilevel, longitudinal, and structural equation models.
        Chapman and Hall/CRC Press, Boca Raton, GL2004
        • White I.R.
        • Royston P.
        • Wood A.M.
        Multiple imputation using chained equations: Issues and guidance for practice.
        Stat Med. 2011; 30: 377-399
        • Kline P.
        A handbook of test construction: Introduction to psychometric design.
        Methuen, New York, NY1986
        • Choi J.-K.
        Nonresident fathers' parenting, family processes, and children's development in urban, poor, single-mother families.
        Soc Serv Rev. 2010; 84: 655-677
        • Magnuson K.
        • Berger L.M.
        Family structure states and transitions: Associations with children's well-being during middle childhood.
        J Marriage Fam. 2009; 71: 575-591
        • Kohler P.K.
        • Manhart L.E.
        • Lafferty W.E.
        Abstinence-only and comprehensive sex education and the initiation of sexual activity and teen pregnancy.
        J Adolesc Health. 2008; 42: 344-351
        • Guse K.
        • Levine D.
        • Martins S.
        • et al.
        Interventions using new digital media to improve adolescent sexual health: A systematic review.
        J Adolesc Health. 2012; 51: 535-543
        • Morrison-Beedy D.
        • Jones S.H.
        • Xia Y.
        • et al.
        Reducing sexual risk behavior in adolescent girls: Results from a randomized controlled trial.
        J Adolesc Health. 2013; 52: 314-321
        • Dittus P.J.
        • De Rosa C.J.
        • Jeffries R.A.
        • et al.
        The Project Connect health systems Intervention: Linking sexually experienced youth to sexual and reproductive health care.
        J Adolesc Health. 2014; 55: 528-534
      2. Young Men's Health Initiative (YMHI). Young Men's Clinic. Available at: http://www.youngmensclinic.org/. Accessed September 1, 2015.

        • Wilson T.E.
        • Fraser-White M.
        • Williams K.M.
        • et al.
        Barbershop talk with brothers: Using community-based participatory research to develop and pilot test a program to reduce HIV risk among black heterosexual men.
        AIDS Educ Prev. 2014; 26: 383-397
        • Frey K.A.
        • Navarro S.M.
        • Kotelchuck M.
        • et al.
        The clinical content of preconception care: Preconception care for men.
        Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2008; 199: S389-S395
        • Ott M.A.
        Examining the development and sexual behavior of adolescent males.
        J Adolesc Health. 2010; 46: S3-S11
      3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Preconception health and health Care: Information for men. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/preconception/men.html. Accessed September 1, 2015.